高中英语知识点全面总结整理版(三)

2014-02-15 21:53 

(1)转向。

He turned to me and said hello to me.他转向我向我问好。

(2)查阅;求助于。

If you are in trouble,please turn to me.如果你有麻烦,请找我。

up 的用法:adv.守全,彻底

Time is up.时间到了

Have you used up you money?

你的钱用完了吗?

常用短语:eat up吃光;tear up撕掉;use up用光;lock up锁住;burn up烧光;get up起床;up and down上上下下,来来往往。

up until…

该结构意为“一直到……为止”,谓动常用完成时态。如:

Up until yesterday two sides had agreed on all the items of this contract.

used to ;would; be used to

(1)used to 表示“过去惯常”,但“现在不做了”,指过去的习惯或状态,to 为不定式符号,后跟动词原形。有两点须注意:

①否定式。used to do sth.的否定式有两种形式:

used not (usedn’t)to do sth.

didn’t use to do sth.例如:

He didn’t use to (usedn’t to)like country music,but now

he is getting interested.

②疑问式。used  to do sth.的疑问式也有两种形式。其简短回答中的to通常不予省略,但动词原形常被省略。

Did + sb.(主语)+ use to do sth.?

Used + sb.(主语)+ to do sth.?

Did he use to play basketball?

Used he to play basketball?

(2)would(可以)是will的过去式,也可表示习惯动作。

①would用于过去将来时。

过去将来时的基本形式是:would+动词原形,在英国英语中,主语是第一人称时,would可换做should,第二、三人称用would。

I thought I would make lots of new friends.我曾认为我会交上许多新朋友。

②would表示过去习惯的动作。

“would + 动词原形”表示过去的习惯动作,与used to 同义,但与used to 有别。Used to do表示过去经常发生的动作或存在的状态,同时隐含有“现在已经有所改变”的意思,而“would+do sth.” 可以用来表示“过去经常发生”,但不表示“过去存在的状态”。

She used to say“No pains,no gains”。

她过去常说:“不劳而获”。(used to可以换为would)

I used to live in the countryside.我过去住在农村。(此句的used to不可用would换用)

(3)be used to具有双重含义:

①be used to是use sth.to do sth的被动形式,意为“被用来干某事”,to为不定式符号。例如:Rice may be used to make wine.

②be used to表示“习惯于……,”be可以换为get或become,表示“开始、变得习惯于……”,to 为介词,其后接名词、代词或动词作宾语。例如:

I’m used to English food.

very当形容词用时,意思为“正是,恰好是……”如果有定语从句则常用that 引导。如:This is the very book(that)I’m after.这正是我要找的书。

waste

It is a waste of time/money to do sth.干……浪费时间(钱)

It’s a waste of time to fix this watch.

watch over

该短语动词意为“照看”,“保护”,“监视”。如:

Will you watch over my clothes while I go shopping.

Watch out(for sth.)意为“注意”,“监视”,“当心”。如:

The doctor told her to watch out for anything unusual.

way(s)后的定语从句

修饰way(s)(方法,方式)的定语从句其关系词可以用in which,that也可省略关系词,但不能直接使用which.如:I feel angry about the way(that)he has treated me./I feel angry about the way in which he has treated me.我对他对待我的方式感到生气。

对比:He found a way that/which led to success.(way在从句中作主语) 他找到了一条通往成功的路。

[应用]单句改错

①I don’t like the way which you laugh at her.

②They didn’t to the experiment the way in that we do now.

key:①在which前加in或改which为that

②改that为which或去掉in

welcome

1)welcome sb.warmly/give sb.a warm welcome热烈欢迎某人;have a rather cold welcome 受到冷遇

2)You are welcome to …欢迎光临某地;Welcome to China.欢迎到中国来;You are welcome. 不用谢,别客气(回答感谢)。

[应用]完成句子

①我们没料到他们会如此热烈地欢迎我们。

We didn’t expect that they_____ us such a warm _____.

②欢迎你们到我们学校来。

You are ____ _____ our school.

Key: ①gave, welcome

②welcome,to

What about when we leave ?

What /How about a drink?

What /How about the two of us having a drink?

How do you like/find the film?

What do you think of it? 征求意见、看法时


What do you think I should do?你认为我该怎么办?

其中的do you think看作插入语,相当于what should I do,do you think?

①I think Tom is the best student in our class.我认为汤姆是我们班最好的学生。划线Tom 提问则得:Who do you think is the best student in our class?你认为谁是我们最好的学生?

(不能说:Do you think who is the best student in our class?)

②What do you think is going to happen next?你认为下一步要发生什么事。

③Which way do you think is better?你认为哪个方法较好呢?

Wht is more更重要的,而且

It’s a useful book, and, what is more, not an expensive one.

它是一本有用的书而且不贵。

We invited a new speaker and, what is more, he was happy to come.

我们请了一位新的演讲者而且他很高兴来。

同义短语:moreover, in addition, besides, what’s wore

whatever用法小结

whatever 是一种用法较特殊的代词,兼有连接词和关系词的作用,主要有以下三种用法:

(1)引导主语从句和宾语从句,意思是“凡是……的事物(=anything that)”.

Whatever I have is yours.我所有的东西就是你的。(主语从句)

Go to stamp sales and buy whatever you can afford.到邮票销售处去把你能买得起的邮票都买下来。(宾语从句)

She would tell him whatever news she got.她会把所听到的任何消息都告诉他。(宾语从句)

Talk to me about whatever is troubling you.把任何使你烦恼的事都对我谈谈。(介词宾语从句)

whatever在这类从句中可作主语、宾语、定语等。

(2)引导状语从句,多表示让步,意思是“不管什么、无论怎样”。如:

Don’t change your plans, whatever happens.无论怎样,你都别改变计划。

Whatever I am, it’s useful to know foreign languages.无论我做什么工作,懂外语总是有用的。

So don’t lose heart, whatever you do。因此无论你做什么,都不要丧失信心。

Whatever the old man was like, most of his scientific work was sound.无论那位老人怎么样,他大部分的科研工作是好的。

You have to go on,whatever difficulties you meet.无论你遇到什么困难,你都必须干下去。

Whatever在这类从句中可作主语、表语、宾语、介词宾语、定语等。

这类句中的某些成分还可以省略。如:

The country is always beautiful whatever the season(is).无论哪个季节,这个国家总是很美。

when conj. (就在)这时、那时。用作并列连词,不能置于句首。

① I was listening to music when I heard someone knocking at the door. 我正在听音乐,这时听到有人敲门。

② I’ll call on you tomorrow, when I’ll explain it to you. 明于我去看你,那时我再向你说明那件事情。

when的用法:

①when在本句中,可以相当于if,引导条件状语从句,意为“既然”。如:

How can I help them to understand when they won’t listen to

me?

②when意为“当……的时候”,“在……时”,引导时间状语从句。

③when是并列连词(=and then)意为“就在这/那时”,连接两个句子。如:We are about to go to city when it is raining.

whenever,“无论什么时候”,既可引导让步状语从句,也可引导名词性从句,whoever,whichever,whatever,wherever,however等也同样。

“no matter when” 只能引导让步状语从句,no matter what(who,where,which,when,how) 也同样。

①Whoever leaves the room last must close the door.

②Whoever came here,he will be welcomed.

whisper

whisper可用作名词或动词,意为“低语,私语”。如:whisper to sb.对某人耳语;whisper about sth./sb.小声议论某事/人;whisper sth. to sb.低声告诉某人某事;in a whisper低声地;It’s whishpered that…私下说……。

对比:say to sb.对某人说;speak to sb.和某人说话;talk to sb.和某人说话;explain to sb.对某人解释说;lie to sb.对某人撒谎说。

[应用]完成句子

①老师低声给孩子们讲了个故事。

The teacher_________ a story to the children./The teacher told the children a story ___________ ____________ _____________.

②有人私下说史密斯先生的生意在衰败。

________ _________ _________ that Mr Smith’s business is falling.

Key:①Whispered/in,a, whisper

②It,is, whispered

with就……来说。

The problem with looking into space from the earth is that there is a lot of dust in the earth air.从地球上观察太空存在一个问题,这就是地球的大气中有着大量的尘埃。

①With many of the poor, hunger is a constant problem.食不果腹是许多穷人经常存在的问题。

②The problem with these men was that they had no knowledge.这些人的主要问题是他们没有知识。

with fear

该介词短语意为“由于害怕”,with + n.有时用来表示原因,其中的n.常是表示情感的名词。

如:Her face turned pale with fear.

word 短语归纳

①would like a word with sb.想和某人说句话;

have a word with sb.与某人说句话;

get in a word /get a word in 插话;

in a (one)word总之, 一句话。

②keep one’s word信守诺言,break one’s word失信;translate sth. word for word 逐字翻译;have/get word(that)…有消息说,获得消息,听说;Word has come/came that…传来消息说……;

③have a few words with sb.和某人说几句话;have words(with sb.)争吵,争论;in words 用言语;with words口头上,in other words/in another word换句话说;match words with deeds言行一致;waster one’s words白费口舌;the last words临终遗言;sharp words苛刻的话;soft words甜言蜜语

④[应用]完成句子

①传来消息说中国女子足球队获亚军。

_______ ________ _______the Chinese Women Football Team had won

second place.

②我听说他们昨晚相互争吵起来。

I________ _________ that they_________ _________with each other last night.

work on/  work at

work on与work at可通用,表示“忙于……”。但在work on sth.中,sth是work的具体对象;而在work at sth.中,sth. 只说明所从事工作的性质,即时间、精力用在某一方面的事情上,而不在于说明正在做什么。如:

He is working on/ at a novel.他正在专心写一部小说。

They have worked at this subject for many years.他们从事这项课题的研究已经好多年了。

Bob worked hard on organizing other singers to sing for him for free.鲍勃积极地组织其他歌唱家为他义务演唱。

work out算出;解决。

①Can you work out how much money it will need?你能算出需多少钱吗?

②I’ve worked out the problem.我已解决了这个问题。

8.take sides(in)袒护;站在……一边。

①They took the side of their child.他们袒护自己的孩子。

②She has taken sides in the quarrel.她参与了争吵。

Worth

be worth doing = be(well)worthy of being done / to be done(很)值得做

The city is worth visiting.这个城市值得参观。

(= The city is worthy of being visited. = The city is worthy to be visited.)

worth; worthy

两者均是形容词,意思是“值得……的”,用法如下:

(1)worthy可以作定语,worth不能。例如:

a worthy rival值得较量的对手

(2)worth后面直接跟名词(多为表示钱或代价的名词),其作用相当于介词;worthy后面接名词时须与of连用(一般不接表示钱的名词)。例如:This second-hand book is worth 100 dollars.这本旧书值100美元。

His deed is worthy of praise.他的事迹值得赞扬。

(3)worth后面可直接跟动名词的主动结构;worthy后接动名词的被动结构,且须与of连用,worthy后也可接不定式的被动式。例如:

This book is worth reading./ This book is worthy of being read./ This book is worthy to be read.这本书值得一读。

The city is worth visiting./The city is worthy to be visited./ The city is worthy of being visited.

(4)表示“很值得”,通常用well修饰,而不用very。例如:

The film is well worth seeing.这部电影很值得一看。

would like 想要;愿意;希望。用来表示愿望,常用结构:

(1)would like sth.

Would you like some beer?想喝点啤酒吗?

(2)would like to do sth.愿意、想要做某事。

第一人称作主语时也可用should,用常用缩写形式。

①He’d like to go there but he is too busy.他想到那里去,但太忙了 。

②I would/should like to study medicine and become a doctor.我想学医当医生。

注意:回答时常用省略形式。

—Would you like to drink some beer? 想喝点啤酒吗?    

—Yes ,I’d like to .好吧,喝点。

(3)would like sb.to do sth.想要、希望别人做某事。并不是主语做。

①I would like her to stay in the company.我希望她留在公司里。

②I’d like you to lend some money to him.我想要你借点钱给他。

would like; should like

(1)两个短语均指“想要……”,与want同义,但would(should)like的语气较want婉转或客气。

(2)would like 可用于各种人称;而should like则主要用于第一人称。例如:

He would(不用should)like to be a doctor.他希望当大夫。

We would(不用should)like to hear your views about it.我们想听听你对这个问题的看法。

(3)在疑问句中常用would like,而不用should like。例如:

What would you like for breakfast?你早饭想吃什么?

(4)这两个短语常常简略为’d like,后面可接名词、代词或动词不定式,不接动名词。例如:

Would you like to leave a message?你要不要留话?

误:Would you like leaving a message?

(5)在省略回答中,would like to 中的to 不可省略,只省略to后面的词语(但be 除外)。例如:

①—Would you like to join us tonigh?

—Oh, I’d like to (join you),but I have a friend to see off at the station.

② —Would you like to be a singer?

—Yes,I’d like to be (a singer).

would say总是会说……

would有过去、常常……之意,但它与used to 的用法不相同的。

①表示过去持续的状态或感情总是used to 而不是would。因此,would不与表示状态的动词连用。

There used to be a hospital/here.(√)

这里过去有一所医院。

There would be…(×)

②used to 和would都可以表示过去规则的行为,但通常would是在过去不大规则的行为时,或主语的关心、感慨等主观因素较强时使用,而used to 则在客观地陈述相当期间的规则行为时使用。

“I’ll leave this job for a better one”,he would say when he was scolded by his boss.

③“would”常与“often,sometimes,for hours”等表示时间的副词(短语)连用。

④与现在或将来比较而表示“以前经常……”的意思时,用used to。

He will not have the money to spend on books as he used to.

“喜欢”的表示方法

英语中,表示“喜欢”的动词或词组有若干个,它们的语气强弱不同,有重有轻,意思也不完全一样,下面分别举例说明:

(1)love 意为“热爱”,指引起深厚的、强烈的感情的爱,并有一种依附意,语气最重。如:

His mother,whom he loved deeply,died when he was only a small boy.他深深爱戴着他的母亲,当他小的时候,她与世长辞了。

I love doing comedies .我喜欢演喜剧。

(2)be fond of 表示“喜欢” “热爱”,也表示对某人或某事有感情,语气次于“love”。如:

Ants are fond of sweet food.蚂蚁喜欢吃甜食。

I’m fond of this child.我喜欢这个小孩。

(3)care for意为“喜欢、对……有兴趣”。如:

The girl cares much for new clothes.这个女孩很喜欢新衣服。

They do not care very greatly for art.他们对艺术不是很感兴趣。

(4)like意为“喜欢”,指不反感,但不引起强烈的感情和迫切的愿意,反义词为dislike.如:

Do you like reading?你喜欢阅读吗?

I like to read in bed.我喜欢在床上看书。

(5)enjoy意为“欣赏”“喜欢”,具有满足感,如:

I enjoy foreign music.我喜欢外国音乐。

Most students enjoy asking questions in English.大部分学生喜欢用英语问问题。

(6)go in for“喜欢(做某类事)、有某种习惯或做法”。如:

What sports do you go in for?你喜欢哪些体育运动?

We don’t go in for that sort of thing.我们不喜欢那种事情。

形容词、副词各等级的修饰语

1)修饰原级的词:very,so,too,quite,rather,fairly,pretty.

2)修饰比较级的词:a little,a bit,slightly,any,much,a lot,a great deal,far,by far,rather,even,still,yet等。

3)修饰最高级的词:by far,much,almost,the second等。

注意:基数词、分数、百分数也可修饰比较等级。

[应用]完成句子

①恐怕箱子对你来说太重了,不过还是要谢谢你。

I’m afraid the box is___heavy___you,but thank you all the same.(MET’90)

②我的房间比你们的稍大一点。

Our room is ____ ____ than theirs.

③我比你早到三个小时。

I came here______ _____ _____ than you.

④黄河是中国第二长河。

The Yellow River is_____ _____ _____river in China.

Key:①too,for ②slightly,bigger ③three,hours,earlier④the,second,longest

year by year/year after year

形容词+with

be pleased with sb./sth.对……满意;be satisfied with 对……满意;be busy with sth.忙于某事;be careful with 对……注意、细心;be connected with与……有联系;be lined with 排列,站队;be patient with sb.对某人有耐心;be popular with受欢迎;be strict with sb.对某人严格要求;be wrong with 出毛病,不顺心;be disappointed with对……失望;be angry with sb.生某人的气

[应用]完成句子

①作为一名老师你应该对学生有耐心。

As a teacher you should_______ _______ ______ your students.

②每条路旁都栽上了树。

Every road ______ ______ _____ trees.

③我们老师对工作认真,对学生也很严格。

Our teacher is not only strict _________ his work but also________his students.

④夫妻都忙于工作,因而无暇顾及孩子。

Both husband and wife _______ ______ ______their work,so they

have no time to care for the child.

Key: ①be, patient,with

②is, lined,with

③in, with

④are,busy,with

向别人提建议时常用的句型。

①Why don’t you do sth.……?你怎不……?

②Why not do sth.?(上句的省略)为什么不……?

③You’d better do sth.你最好是……。

例如:

①Why don’t you ask them to help you?你怎么不叫他们帮助你呢?

②Why not/don’t you go for a walk with them?为什么不和他们一块去散步呢?

③You’d better go to see a doctor this afternoon.你最好下午去看医生。

year by year(=every year)强调逐步转变的过程,“逐年(变化)”。

They liked the cold wet weather there and their number increased year by year.糜鹿喜欢那里凉爽湿润的气候,因此它们的数量逐年增长。

The population increasing year by year.人口年复一年在增长。

Year after year(=for years)强调“逐年不断、重复,年年(重复)”。

Don’t plant the same crop in the same field year after year.不要年年都在同一块地里种同一种植物。

疑问词 +不定式

what ,how, when,where,whether,which等疑问词 + 不定式构成的短语相当于名词从句,多用在ask,decide,know, tell, explain, find out, consider, wonder后作宾语,可以改换成相应意义的宾语从句对比:

①Please show us how to use it./Please show us how we will use it.

请为我们示范一下如何使用。

②We don’t know whether to accept his invitation./We don’t

know whether we should accept his invitation.

我们不知道是否应该接受他的邀请。

[应用]填空

①There’re so many kinds of tape-recorders on sale that I can’t make up my mind______ to buy.(MET’92)

A what     B.which    C.how     D.where

②Last summer I took a course on _______.(MET’90)

A.how to make dresses    

B.how dresses be made

C.how to be made dresses

D.how dresses to be made

Key:①B ②A

“一……就……”英语表达法

On his arrival he was sold to farmer and worked in the fields.他一到就被卖给一个农场主,开始在田里劳动。

The moment he reached the country,he started his search.他一到那个国家,就开始寻找。

以上例句中的On his arrival和The moment均含“一……就……”“刚……就……”之意。下面就该意义的四种表达方式予以归纳。

(1)as soon as 归纳:

①as soon as 引出的时间状语从句既可以放在主句之前,也可放在主句之后,表示它所指的动作发生在另一分句所指的动作之前。

②as soon as 可以与动词的一般现在时,一般过去时或完成时态连用,主句的动词使用相应的动词现在时,过去时或将来时。如:

He started as soon as he received the news.

他一得到消息就出发了。

As soon as he had got into the car, I said“good morning”to him in French and he replied in the same language. 他一上车,我就用法语向他道了声早安,他也用法语作了回答。

(2)hardly/scarcely/barely…when/before…no sooner…than…归纳:

①注意搭配关系;hardly/scarcely/barely和no sooner不可以放在when/before和than之后。

②hardly/scarcely/barely和no sooner否定词位于句首时,句中的主语和谓语必须部分倒装。

③hardly/scarcely/barely和no sooner引导的是主句,表示它的动作发生在从句之前,故常用过去完成时;而when/before和than引导的从句只能与一般过去时连用。

④该句型含“惊奇”之意。如:

Mrs Winthrop had no sooner left the room than they began to gossip about her.温思罗太太刚离开房间,他们就议论起她来了。

Scarcely/Hardly/Barely had he begun to speak when I sensed that he was in trouble.

他刚一开口,我就感到他遇到麻烦事了。

No sooner had we set out than a thunderstorm broke.我们一动身就遇上了大雷雨。

(3)the moment/the instant归纳:

名词短语the moment/instant/minute/second和副词immediately/

directly可以用做连词,相当于as soon as,引导的是时间状语从句;从句既可放在句首,也可放在句中。如:

The moment I saw him, I knew that there was no hope.一见到他,我就知道没希望了。

The instant you leave this tent, you will get a big surprise. 你一出账篷,便会大吃一惊。

We will leave the minute you’re ready.你一准备好,我们就走。

She returned immediately she heard the bad news.她一听到这个坏消息,就返了回来。

I left directly the clock struck twelve.钟一敲十二点我就离开了。

(4)on + 动名词(或表示动作的名词)归纳:

动名词(或名词)结构表示它所表达的动作刚一发生或完成,句子谓语所表示的动作就接着发生。它相当于as soon as 引导的时间状语从句。如:

On arriving in England, they were taken to the Grystal Palace by train.他们一到英国便乘火车去水晶宫。

On his return from Europe, he set to work in earnest.他一从欧洲回来,便开始认真工作。

He was greeted by the Prime Minister on his arrival at the airport.他一到机场,便受到总理的欢迎。

另外,each time, every time如同上面四种类型一样,可直接用作从属连词,引导状语从句。如:

Every time I listen to his advice, I get into trouble. 我每次听了他的劝告,都会遇到麻烦。

I’ll think of my hometown each time I listen to that song.我每次听这首歌,都会想起家乡。

引导从句的词常有:when/while/whenever/before/after/until/till/和if/unless/though,但简化必须符合下面两个条件。

(1)当从句与主句主语一致,且从句谓语有be的某种形式时,常可以把从句的主语及be省略掉。

①Be careful when(you are) crossing the street 过马路的时候要小心。

②While (he was)walking along the sands.Crusoe saw some footprints in the sand.克鲁索沿沙滩走着的时候,看到沙子上有些脚印。

③I won’t go to her party unless(I am) invited.要是不受到邀请,我就不去参加她的宴会。

④He knows many things though(he is)very young.他年龄不大,但知道的事不少。

(2)当从句为it is + adj.时,也常将it is省略掉。

①When (it is)possible,I’ll go to Beijing to see you.可能的时候,我将去北京看你。

②If (it is)necessary, I’ll come tomorrow.必要的话,明天我就来。

只能接动名词作宾语的词

 1)动词:admit,advise,consider,delay,enjoy,excuse,escape, finish, forbid, imagine, keep, mind, miss, practise, suggest, unders-

tand

2)词组:insist on, think of, give up, dream of, hear of,depend on,feel like,devote to, be used to,can’t help,prevent… from,look forward to, put off, be worth

[应用]选择正确答案

①The squirrel was lucky that it just missed ________.

A.catching               B.to be caught

C.being caught           D.to catch

②Only one of these books is _________.

A.worth to read         B.worth being read

C.worth of reading      D.worth reading

③I really enjoy ________ that kind of job.

A.do       B.doing        C.to do       D.to be doing

④“What are you going to do this morning?”

“I’m thinking of _______ to visit my aunt.”

A.go                      B.going

C.having gone                D.my going

Key:①C ②D ③B ④B

只能接不定式作宾语的动词

下列动词只能接不定式作宾语,不能接动名词


agree,ask,choose, decide, demand,expect, hope,learn,long, manage,offer,plan,promise, pretend, refuse,wish,set out, determine,

would love.

[应用]选择正确答案

①We agree _______ here but so far she hasn’t turned up yet.

(MET’95)

A.having met                B.meeting

C.to meet                   D.to have met

②She pretended __________ me when I passed by.(MET’89)

A.not to see                B.not seeing

C.to not see                D.having not seen

③Little Jim should love ______ to the theatre this even-

ing.(met’92)

A.to be taken               B.to take

C.being taken               D.taking

Key:①C ②A ③A


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