发表时间:2014-02-15 21:50


I happened to have no money with me./It happened that I had no money with me.


(3)happen to sb./sth. “某人/物出事,发生了……情况”。

如:What has happened to your hand?你的手怎么了?

Be careful not to let anything happen to that child.



①—We haven’t heard from Jane for a long time.(MET’91)

—What do you suppose __________to her?

A.was happening                B.to happen

C.has happened                 D.having happened

②They happened to _______for Tianjin when we got there.(MET’)

A.leave     B.have left      C.leaving      D.had left

③If anything __________you,let me know.

A.is happened to              B.is happening

C.happens on                  D.happens to

Key:①C ②B ③D

have a right to do sth.有权做某事

right:①当名词用,可有复数形式如:human rights人权;但是当方向(右边)讲时,不可数,turn to the right向右转


He didn’t feel quite right.他感觉不太舒服。

Your advice is right你的建议是对的。

Which is the right answer?哪个答案正确?


Don’t forget to turn right when you meet a bookstore.看到那家书店别忘了向右转。

The crowd divided right and left.


have/find + difficulty/trouble + (in)doing sth ./ with sth.

There be + difficulty/trouble + (in) doing sth./with sth.做某事有困难/麻烦;在……方面有困难/麻烦。

其中的difficulty和trouble为不可数名词;doing前的介词in 可省略。

①I have some difficulty(in)pronouncing some English words.有些英语单词我发音有困难。

②Everyone in the town knew him; so we had no difficulty(in) finding his house。镇上所有的人都认识他,所有我们毫不费力就找到了他的家。

③The boy had little difficulty with maths.这孩子学数学没困难。

④There was much difficulty (in) finding him.好不容易才找到他。

have mercy on/upon sb.

该短语意为“宽恕(或可怜)某人”,类似的词组还有show mercy to sb.。

He always has mercy on the poor.

at the mercy of …任由……摆布,在……的掌握中。

如:They were lost at sea,at the mercy of the winds and the waves.

have no choice but to do sth.


如:You have no choice but to obey me.

have on,have…on

have on 表示“穿着,戴着”,有have on sth.或have sth.,on结构,强调状态,无进行时,但有动词—ing短语形式。have…on表示“有事,有约(会)”。对比:

On Children’s Day,children always have on their new clothes. 儿童节那天孩子们总是穿着新衣服。

I’ve nothing on tomorrow.Let’s go together. 明天我没事,咱们一起去吧。

误:In fact the king was having nothing on.

正:In fact the king had nothing on.事实上国王什么也没穿。

正:The king having nothing on walked in the front.一丝不挂的国王走在最前面。


①He has something on this evening.I’ve to go without him.

②He has his uniform on this evening.

have something(nothing,much,little)to do with与……有(没有,有很大,有一点)关系。

①I have nothing to do with that young man.

②His job has something to do with telephones.

③This has little to do with what we are talking about.

④Do you have anything to do with that club?

He sends his regards/best wishes/love to you. 带人问好时

也可用:Please remember me to your parents.

head vi.向……前进,朝某方面行进。后面接for,forward的介词短语,或表示方向的副词east,eastward等。head south向南行

①Where are we heading?

②Those ships are heading for HongKong.

hear vt,;vi.


①Listen!I heard somebody knocking at the door.听!我听到有人敲门。

②Old Granny can’t hear very well.老奶奶听觉不好了。

(2)hear that(宾从)听说某事

①I heard that he had come back.我听说他回来了。

②I heard that we were going to Qingdao for a holiday.Is that true?听说我们要去青岛度假,是真的吗?

(3)hear of  听说;获悉。

①I have heard of him,though I don’t know him.尽管我不认识他,但我听说过他。

②They have never heard of American country music.他们从没听说过美国的乡村音乐。

③They have never heard American country music。他们从没听过美国的乡村音乐。

(4)hear from sb.收到某人的来信。

—Have you heard from Peter recently?最近收到彼得的信了吗?

—No,I haven’t heard from him for three months.没有。我已3个月没收到他的信了。


lose heart 失去信心;lose one’s heart to sb./sth.爱上某人/事;give heart to sb.鼓励某人;give one’s heart sb./sth.爱上某人/事;put one’s heart into 一心扑在某事上;heart and soul全心全意地;have a kind heart有一幅好心肠;break one’s heart使某人伤心;learn…by heart 记住,背诵;with a heavy/light heart 心情沉重地/轻松愉快地



The team had won no game and it ________ ________.


We wonder why she ________ _________ ________ _______an

old foreigner.


Nothing is too difficult in the world if you _______ _______

________ _______it.


It’s the duty of a Party member to serve the people  ________

_________ _________ __________.


help oneself to“自行取用(食物等),随意使用”

Help yourself to more cakes.

help to do sth.

该动宾结构意为“有助于干某事”,且不定式符号to 可以省略,即构成help do sth.的表达形式。如:

①This book helps to understand this question.

②Exercises help build up.


hold one’s hand 抓住某人的手;hold me by the arm抓住我的胳臂;hold one’s breath屏住气;hold back one’s tears  忍住泪水;hold a meeting 开会;hold 100 passengers容纳100名乘客;hold a position守住阵地;hold back 阻止;hold one’s head high昂首,趾高气扬;hold up the wounded part 抬高受伤的部位; hold it tight 抓紧;hold everything in secret 对一切都保密;catch/get/take hold of a rope 抓住绳子;hold a child in one’s arms 怀抱孩子;hold a final examination举行期末考试


①Nothing can hold______the wheel of the history.

②I held her _____ the hand and tried to follow her.

③He was saved by taking hold______ the big stick.

④Please hold______ your hand if you have any questions to ask.

Key: ①back ②by ③of ④up

How do you do ? 初次见面打招呼  答语为How do you do ?也可用Nice /Glad/Pleased to meet you.熟人见面打招呼  How are you?随便一些可用Hello, Hi.

How do (did )you find…?(你觉得/认为……怎么样?)是征求对方对某人、某事的看法或意见的用语。回答时在find 后要跟复合宾语。

 How did you find the dishes?

 (I found them)Tasteless.

 How do you find Peter Gray?

 I found him dishonest.

How long have you had it?你买了多久了?

瞬时动词come/go/leave/start/arrive/buy/die/join/borrow/marry等不能与表示一段时间的状语连用。如how long, for 和 since所表示的时间。


不能说:He has died for 3 years.

而应说:He has been dead for 3 years/He died 3 years ago.

It is 3 years since he died.


不能说:How long has he joined the army?

而应说:How long has he been in the army?/How long has he been a soldier?/How long is it since he joined the army?

how long/how soon/how far/how often

(1)how long 多久。表示一段时间,句中的动词应是延续性的。是对for 或since等所表示的时间状语的提问。

—How long have you lived here ?你在这里住多久了?

①—For three years.3年了。

②—Since 1997.从1997年至今。

③—Since I graduated from college.从大学毕业至今。

(2)how soon (将来)多久;(过)多久(以后)。是对in 所表示的时间状语的提问。

—How soon can you finish the work?多久你能完成这工作?

—In three hours. 3小时后。

(3)how far 多远。用来提问距离。

—How far is your hometown from here?你家乡离这里多远?

—Twenty kilometres.20公里。

(4)how often(每隔)多久;多经常。用来提问频度。

—How often do you usually go home?你多久回家一次?

—Twice a month. 一个月两次。

how to do sth.是由“疑问副词+动词不定式”构成的复合结构,在句中可作表语。

How to deal with it hasn’t been decided.

My question is how to feed so many people.

however adv. 然而;但是。表示转折,起承上启下的作用。本身具有相对的独立性,通常逗号与句子其他部分隔开。

①He likes singing. He can’t sing very well, however. 他喜欢唱歌,然而唱不好。

②He didn’t agree with me ; however, he said nothing.他不同意我的看法,但他什么也没说。

human(being)[c]人,与动物等对比的人(the human人类)

A human being tells the machine what to do, when to do and how to do.


In the story human beings were replaced by robots.





be badly wounded in the battle 战斗中受重伤;

wound sb.to death 使某人受伤致死;

hurt one’s back摔伤了后背;hurt one’s feeling伤害某人的感情;be hurt by his words被他的话所伤害。


have a wound in the chest胸部受伤;

receive a serious wound受重伤;the wounded伤员。


The girl fell off her bike. She hurt one of her legs hurts.




The soldier ______ ______ _____in his head./The soldier ______

_______in the head./The soldier head ______ ______.


I was rather__________by what they said about me.


My right foot ________.


It seemed that he _________badly_________.

Key:①received,a, would/was, wounded/was wounded

②hurt ③hurts ④was, hurt/wounded

I must be off now.     I must go now .    I must be leaving now. 表示自己要走时

I think it would be a good idea to(do sth.)


A:I’m afraid I’m putting on weight.

B:I think it would be a good idea to keep on doing moning exercises.

idea  n.  主意,想法

①have an idea       ②have the idea of doing

③have an idea that/wh-从句

He thought and thought, and then he had an idea.


She had the idea of discussing the problem with her husband.


I have an idea that he will lose. 我认为他会输的。

Do you have any idea where he has gone?



1)通常unless 等于if not 如:

I won’t go unless he comes .= I won’t go if the doesn’t come .


I’ll be surprised if he doesn’t have an accident .他要是不出事故,我倒会感到奇怪了。

unless 不能用于“由于未发生B而产生A”的句子,再如:

I’ll be quite glad if she doesn’t come this evening.要是他今晚不来,我才高兴呢。

mix  .混合mixture n. 混合物

Water and oil will not mix .油和水不相溶合。

Mix black with white 混淆黑白。

注意:下面句子中mix 的形式。

A rain is falling ,mixed with snow .雨夹着雪在下着。

I’m sorry(that)…很抱歉……。是自认为表现欠妥或做事失误时的道歉用语,其后的从句说明道歉的内容和原因。

①I’m sorry I can’t answer the question.对不起我不会回答这个问题。

②I’m sorry that I broke your glass.很抱歉我把你的杯子打破了。


1)接名词、代词:You can’t imagine the life on the island.你无法想象岛上的生活。

2)接动名词:She never imagined her going abroad for further education.她从没设想过会出国深造。

3)接从句:You can’t imagine how worried I was those days.你想象不到那几天我是多么焦虑啊。

4)接复合宾语:The boy imagined himself to be a hero. 这男孩把自己想象成了英雄。

[应用] 选择正确答案

I can hardly imagine Peter ______across the Atlantic Ocean in five days.(MET’91)

A.sail      B.to sail       C.sailing       D.to have sailed




improve one’s English/the living conditions/one’s method of study/oneself in maths提高英语水平/改善居住条件/改进学习方法/提高教学水平。


After two days’ rest his health is improving.


3)用作名词:improvement of soil土壤改良;make improvement in 在某方面作出改进




Key:①His Chinese is improving./He is improving his Chinese.

②You’d better improve your article./You’d better make improvement in your article.

in prep. 在……之后。用于“将来一段时间之后”。

① Your birthday is in two weeks’ time .你的生日还有两周。

② I’ll finish the work in 3 days/in 3 days’ time. 这两项工作我3天后完成。


① I’ll be back in 3 days.3天后我回来.

② I’ll be back after the New year. 新年后我回来。

in a word总之=in one word

In a word, I don’t trust him.


Tom is brave, careful and calm. In a word, he is admirable.


in charge of    prep.担任……,管理……,负责

in the charge of a person?in a person’s charge由(某人)照料(管理)

take charge of 担任……,接管。

My father is in charge of this company.

in common, in general, in particular,in short

(1)in common(with)与……有共同处、(和……)一样。如:

They have nothing in common with one another.他们相互毫无共同之处。

(2)in general 大体上、通常、一般说来。如:

In general boys like sports more than girls.一般说来,男孩比女孩更喜欢运动。

(3)in particular= particularly特别、尤其。如:

I noticed his eyes in particular, because they were very big.我特别注意到他的眼晴,因为那双眼晴很大。

(4)in short简单地说,总之。如:

The man, in short,is not to be trusted.总之,那个人是不何信任的。

in debt(to)欠债,欠人情

out of debt还清负债,没欠债

get(run,fall)into debt,vi.借债,负债

pay off the debt还清债务

She was always in debt when she was out of work.

In 1860,Abraham Lincoln was elected president….1860年林肯被选为总统。


in future;in the future; for the future

in future意思是“从今以后”。例如:

In future,be careful with your pronunciation.今后要注意你的发音。

Such a bad habit must be got rid of in future.今后成长须改掉这样的坏习惯。

in the furture意思是“将来、今后的日期”,但 不一定就是从今立即开始,而是将来的时间。例如:

No one can know what will happen in the future.没有人知道将来会发生什么事。

My sister wants to be actress in the future.我妹妹将来想当演员。

for the future的意思是“就未来而论、今后”,作“今后”解时可与in future替换使用。例如:

What are your plans for the future when you grow up? 你长大以后对你的未来有什么打算?

For the future, we’ll  have to depend on ourselves.今后我们得依靠自己。

in honour of sb.(sth.) 为了纪念或表示敬意而举行某活动。

①A memorial meeting was held in his honour.

②It is only a dance in honour of my birthday.


in praise of为……颂扬、歌颂;in honour of 为纪念,为了向某人表示敬意;in memory of为了怀念;in favour of赞同,支持;in place of 代替;in charge of负责;in search of寻找;in need of 需要。



①This is a book which sings high praise for pioneers.

This is a book ________ ________ ________ pioneers.

②They startd off at once to look for the missing girl.

They started off at once________ ______ _______the missing girl.

③We all agree to your plan.

We are all ______ ________ ______your plan.

④We usr plastics instead of wood or metal.

We use plastics_______ ________ ________ wood or metal.

Key:①in, praise, of            ②in, search, of    

③in, favour, of            ④in, place, of

in one’s opinion 在某人看来,依照某人的看法,也可以说:

in one’s personal opinion

例:have a good /high opinion of sb . = think / speak well/highly of sb.


in one’s will在某人的遗嘱中


Her death is god’s will, I suppose.


His strong will enables him to refuse all the worldly pleaseres.


Where there is a will, there is a way.


in other words换句话说

In other words, they failed to pass the exam.


He became, in other words, a great hero.


in place/out of place在原处;在合适的位置。

①You should keep everything in place.(=in order)


②What you said is somewhat out of place.你的话有些离谱了。

in the 1950s:in the 1950’s 20世纪50年代。介词也可用during。

early/late in the 1990s:in the early/late 1990’s。 20世纪90年代早期/晚期。

in the hope of

该短语表示“期待,抱有……的希望”,后接名词、代词或动名词,可替换成:in the hope that 从句或hoping to…。对比:

They got up very early in the hope of catching the first bus.


注意:have the hope of…/There be hope of…有希望

对比:She has the hope of success.她有成功的希望。

There is still hope of persuading him to change his mind.




He went there in the hope of buying some fresh fish./He

Went there in the hope that he could buy some fresh fish./He went there hoping to buy some fresh fish.

in the last few years.

该短语意为“最近几年”,常和现在完成时连用,表示以前某时开始一直延续至说话时的动作或状态。in可被during或over 替换。常用的还有:during the past ten days过去的10天里;over the last 5 months过去的5个月里;in the past few weeks 过去的几周里如:

We’ve learned quite a lot of English over the past three years.



①Many factories were built in the last ten years in my hometown.

②Both my father and mother have been busy since the past few weeks.

Key:①改were 为have been


in the past sixty years在过去的60年里(常与现在完成时连用)

Great changes have taken place in the past few years.

in time及时(=not later than),终究(=sooner or later)

I hope you will arrive in time for the meeting .


Work hard and you will succeed in time.


Increase v.& n.(使……)增长/加              

Travel can increase our knowledge of the world.旅行能加深我们对世界的了解。

The number of students in this school has increased to 3,000.这个学校的学生人数已增加到3000人。

The population of the area increased by 5% last year.这个地区的人口去年增加了5%。

an increase in production/ number/population.


information: news新闻;消息。为不可数名词,如果表示“几条消息”,应用piece

①The news is true.这条消息是真的。

②a piece of news 一条新闻;一则消息。two pieces of news 两条新闻;两则消息。several pieces of news几条新闻;几则消息。

insist on doing sth.坚持做……

suggest doing sth.建议做……

enjoy doing sth.喜欢做……



up,can’t help,imagine, leave off,mention,mind,miss,postp

-hone,practise,put off, resist,risk,can’t understand,und



Look forward to,object to ,be used to,in addition to,prefer…to,according to,stick to,etc.

insist表示“坚持要求(某人或主语本身)干某事。”;suggest 表示“建议”,以及order, demand, request, advise…,这些动词后的宾语从句常用虚拟语气形式。


He insisted that he(should)be sent to the poorest place to work。他坚持要求派他去最贫穷的地方工作。

instead of

instead of是短语介词,意思是“代替、而不”,后接名词、代词、动名词,有时接动词原形、不定式、形容词等。如:

I’ll take that book instead of this one.我要那本书不要这一本。

Instead of putting it off till the next day, he started working right away. 他立即开始工作,不把它拖到明天。

You should give him advice instead of money. 你应给他忠告而不是金钱。

A word of encouragement might have made me respect instead of hating him.一句鼓励的话当可时可能使我尊敬他而不是恨他。

Things are now better instead of worse.目前情况是好转而不是恶化。

We made the trip by train instead of by car.我们是乘火车旅行的,不是乘汽车。

instead of, instead, in place of, take the place of

He went to attend the meeting instead of me .

I was ill so he went to attend the meeting instead .

注意:instead 可用于句首,表示“相反的”。如:

She never studies .Instead, she plays tennis all day .她从不学习。相反地,她整天打网球。

in place of很多时候可与instead of换用,但更强调“取代”之意。如:

He isn’t fit for the job, so I’ll do it in place of him.他胜任不了这项工作,我要代他做。

take the place of 是动词短词,在句中做谓语,如:

Tractors have taken the place of horses .拖拉机已经取代了马。

注意:instead of 后可接ing 形式,介词短语等。如:

He came by bus instead of by train.他是乘汽车来的而不是乘火车。

He wanted to go to a film instead of staying at home.他想去看电影而不是呆在家里。

Isn’t it easier to stay in the same place ?留在原地难道不更舒服一些吗?


① Don’t you know my address?难道你不知道我的地址吗?

②Can’t you speak English?你难道不会说英语吗?

Isn’t it happy to live with us ?莫非和我们生活在一起不快乐?


此句型中,it 作形式宾语,常用于句型中的动词有find,feel, think, consider, make等。Einstein.who was a Jew, found it impossible to continue living in Germany.


①I found it quite pleasant to work with him.我发现和他一起工作很愉快。

②He feels it his duty to help others.他感到帮助别人是他的责任。

It is hoped that…      人们希望……

It said that …    据说……

It is believed that…     人们相信

It is reported that…     据报道……

It is hoped that our team will win the game.人们希望我们的队赢得比赛。

It is said that the strange old man is a great artist.据说那个怪老头是一位艺术大师。

It is believed that before writing was developed, people in China used to keep records by putting a number of stones together.人们认为,在出现书写以前,中国人常把石块放在一起来记事。

It is reported in the papers that the president of the U.S.A will arrive next Monday.据报纸报道美国总统下星期一抵达。

It is/was + adj. +  for/of sb.+ to do sth.某人做某事是…….

该句的It 为形式主语,真正的主语是后面的不定式(短语),for/of sb.是不定式的逻辑主语。能用于该句型的形容词常有:(1)important/ unimportant/ necessary/ possible/ impossible/ hard/ difficult/ easy/ useful/ usual/ unusual等。这些形容词的后面常用for来表示不定式的逻辑主语。

①It’s important(for you)to learn English well.(你们)学好英语很重要。

②It’s not easy for them to finish the work within three hours.对他们来说3小时内完成这项工作很难。

(2)right/ wrong/ clever/ foolish/ stupid/ nice/ kind/ rude/ polite/ impolite等。这些形容词的后面常用of 介词短语表示不定式的逻辑主语。

①It’s kind of you to help us.你们帮助我们真是太好了。

②It’s impolite of a person to interrupt people while they are talking.打断别人谈话的人是不礼貌的。

It takes sb. some time to do sth .做某事花某人时间。其中的It 是形式主语。代替后面的不定式(短语)。

①It will take us a whole week to travel through the forest. 穿过这片森林得用我们一整周时间。

②It took them 3 days to finish the work.干完这项工作用了他们3天时间。

It’s time for sth . 该是做……的时候  如:

It’s time for lunch .该吃午饭了。

It’s time (for sb) to do sth . 如:

It’s time (for us )to go to school.(我们)该上学了。


The time has come for lunch.

The time has come for us to go to school.

注意:在It’s time ……句式中time 前可加 high, about 等修饰词,用法不变。其后跟that 从句时要用虚拟语气。如:

It’s (high)time we got up.

It’s about time (that) he knew the truth.



1)remember doing/having done记得曾做过某事remember to do记住去做某事  对比:

Do you remember meeting me at a party last year?

Please remember to write to your parents when you get there.

2)regret doing/having done 后悔做了(或没做)某事/regret to do遗憾地去做某事  对比:

I regret telling her the truth.

I regret to say that you are completely wrong.

3)try to do 尽力去做/try doing  试着去做

对比:She tried to learn it by heart.

She tried adding more salt to the soup.

4)forget doing 忘记曾经做过/forget to do忘记去做

对比:I forget reading about it in a magazine.

Don’t forget to shut off the gas when you finish cooking.

5)stop doing 停止做/stop to do 停止某一动作去作另一动作(说明停止的目的)

对比:They didn’t start until it stopped raining .

We stopped to see what was going on.

6)mean doing 意味着/mean to do 打算,意图做

对比:Missing the train means waiting for an hour.

I meant to come, but a friend of mine went to see me .

7)want doing 需要(物作主语,动名词主动表示被动)/want to do  想做(人作主语)

对比:The wall wants painting. I want to paint the wall myself.

join,join in, take part in ,attend

1)join 表示“加入党派,组织、社团、俱乐部”等。

如:join the Party/Youth League/army/club/organization入党/入团/参军/加入俱乐部/加入组织。Would yo join us(in) singing?和我们一起唱歌吧!

His brother joined the army a year ago.



I will join you in a few minutes.我一会就过来。

Please join the two ends of the rope together.把绳子两头接起来。

2)join in 表示“参加正在进行的活动”。如 :join in a game /discussion/conversation/walk/talk参加游戏/讨论/谈话/一起散步/一起讨论。亦可说:join sb. in (doing)sth.表示“加入某人一起做某事”。

3)take part in 表示“参加会议、活动”,侧重说明主语参加并发挥一定作用,part 前若有修饰语,要用不定冠词。如:take (an active)part in a party/school activities/physical labour(积极)参加聚会/学校活动/体力劳动。

4)attend 表示“出席、参加会议、仪式、婚礼、葬礼、典礼、上课、上学、听报告”。如:attend a  meeting/a sports meeting/a concer/a show/school/a lecture参加会议/运动会/出席音乐会/出席展览会/上学/听演讲。



It’s two years since my brother_______the army.


All my friends_______ ________ ________ wishing you a happy birthday.


There will be a party this evening. Are you going to_______ ______ _______ it?


Mike didn’t ______ Lily’s wedding.

Key:①joined ②join,me,in③take,part,in ④attend

keep doing sth.连续、持续地做某事。

①They kept sitting there for several hours.他们在那里连续坐了好几个小时。

②He kept asking silly questions.他不住地问些愚蠢的问题。

keep ;store; save



We had to store all this while we were away. 我们不在家时,得把所有的一切都收藏起来。如:

After harvest we store the grain.收割后我们把粮食存起来。


He was out of work, he had saved no money before.他失业了,以前也没有攒下钱。

They are saving for a house.他们正在存钱买房。


I have kept the old letters all the time.我一直把这些旧信保存了下来。

Will you keep the papers for me?你能为我保存这些论文吗?

keep off


A board stands by the house on which were written “keep off”.

At night they made a fire to keep wild animals off.

keep one’s word

该动宾词组意为“守信”,“遵守诺言”。词组里word不能用复数形式words.同义词组为“keep a promise”,反义词组为“break one’s word”。如:

Once you promise someone to do something,you should keep your word.

keep sb.healthy使……保持健康


①I was so tired that I could hardly keep myself awake.

②I’m sorry to have kept you waiting so long.

③Keep your mouth shut and your eyes open.

④They kept us out.

⑤Once a cold kept him in bed for three days.

keep up


①keep sth.up使不低落,遵守

如:Even if we fail we should keep up our spirits.

②keep sb.up使晚睡

如:It’s wrong to keep the children up so late.

③keep up with sb.赶上,不落后,保持联系

如:I still keep up with my college classmates far away.



go down on one’s knees 双膝跪地

go down on one knee单膝跪地

如:①The son went down on his knees, begging his father for


②Some football players celebrate their“goal”by going down

on one knee.

knock into

该短语意为“把……敲人” ,也可意译为“撞着某人/某物”如:

①The wall is so hard I can’t knock nails into it.

②He was reading while he eas walking and knocked into a tree.



lack money/courage缺钱/ 缺少勇气;lack(in) experience/ courage缺少经验/勇气;have no lack of...不缺乏;for lack of…因为缺乏。对比:

He is lacking in courage./He lacks courage.他缺少勇气。

The plants died for lack of water. 因为缺水植物枯死了。



She________ ______ ______to get the job.


They______ ______ _______ of money but_______skilled workers.

Key: ①lacked,the,experience ②have,no,lack,lack

lately; recently


recently 是书面语,常被quite,just,but, very,only等词所修饰,以加强语气。主要用于肯定句中。如:

He’s only recently begun billogy. 他只是最近才开始学生物。

I didn’t know it until quite recently.我一直到最近才知道。


I haven’t seen him lately.我近来没有看到他。

lay the table, lay breakfast

两个动词短语均可作“摆好桌子”解,但各自的确切含意不同:lay the table单纯指“摆桌子(准备吃饭)”,可用于早、中、晚三餐的任何一餐的场合,如:

I only laid the table.我只是摆好了餐桌(准备吃饭)。而“lay breakfast”则很明确地表示“摆桌子(吃早餐)”。如:

I have laid lunch.我已经摆好午餐的桌子了。

He has laid supper.他已把晚餐的桌子摆好了。

leave sth. to sb.(在死后)将……留给某人;请某人负责某事

His aunt left all her property to him after her death.  他姑姑死后将所有财产都留给他了。

I’ll leave it to you to buy the tickets.我委托你负责买票。

lend to 引导;引起,造成,导致。

①Labour leads to happiness.劳动使人幸福。

②Where does this road lead to?这条路通向哪里?

His carelessness led to his failre.他的粗心导致失败。

Too much work or too little rest often leads to illness.过度工作或很少休息经常导致疾病。

Difference of opinion led to a heated argument.意见分歧导致了激烈的争论。

lecture, speech, talk, repot



①give a lecture         ②attend a lecture

③make a speech          ④give a talk

⑤receive a report       ⑥make a report

⑦send in a report       ⑧a school report

key:①作演讲 ②出席演讲会 ③发表演说 ④发表讲话 ⑤收到报告⑥作报告 ⑦呈交报告 ⑧成绩报告单





例:I have never lied in my life.

Obviously he was lying.


例:The children lay on the grass, looking at the beautiful sky.

The look is lying on the desk.



例:She laid the baby gently down on the bed.

The hen laid an egg yesterday.



lie in

短语动词lie in 意为“在于”。如:

The way out lies in the development of education.

like 用法小结

(1)like 用做动词(及物)通常表示一般的“喜欢”,为口语用词,词意没有love感情强烈,反义词为hate。

①like + n.(pron.)

Does Li Ming like bananas?李明喜欢吃香蕉吗?

Do you like it?你喜欢它吗?

②like + v.-ing(动名词)

Do you like working in China?你喜欢在中国工作吗?

③like + to + v.(不定式)

I like to keep busy.我喜欢生活得紧张。

④would like(=would love)后接名词、代词或不定式,多用于有礼貌地提出要求,意为“想要、愿意”。

Would you like something to drink?你想喝点什么吗?

I’d like two sweaters for my daughter.我要给我女儿买两件运动衫。

Would you like to come?你愿意来吗?

⑤How do you like...?(=What do you think of...?)此句型用于询问对方对某人(物)的看法,意为“你觉得 ……怎么样?”

How do you like China?你觉得中国怎么样?

(2)like 用做介词,意为“像……一样”,反义词为unlike。

 ①like 后接名词、代词或动名词作宾语。

Don’t throw it like that .别那样扔它。

They’re round,like the moon.它们是圆的,像月亮一样。

Walking on the moon is just like flying .在月球上行走就像飞一样。

②look like意为“看起来像……一样”。

It looks like a chicken.它看起来像一只鸡。

③feel like+v-ing意为“想……”。

I had a little,but I don’t feel like eating.我吃了一点,可我不想吃。

④What’s the weather like...?(=How’s the weather like...?)此句型用来询问天气情况,意为“……天气怎么样?”。

What’s the weather like in Australia now?现在澳大利亚天气情况怎么样?

It’s (just)like sb. to do sth.


It is just like her to think of others before thinking of herself.

like crazy


In order to finish his work on time, he worked like crazy.


Most youths are crazy about famous stars.

live by it赖……为生;以……为生(Δ不可用于被动语态)

Live by(one’s)pen 以笔耕为生

live out 活着,熬过

live through(it)活过,度过……而不死 (Δ不可用于被动语态)

The patient will not live through the night.

l ive…life过着……生活

live a hard life过着艰苦的生活

live a happy life 过着愉快的生活

live a quiet life过着安静的生活

live a miserable life过着悲惨的生活

Einstein lived the rest of his life quietly in the USA.爱因斯坦在美国安静地度过了他的余生。

The working people are living a happy life now.劳动人民过着幸福的生活。


look back upon/on回顾,回想过去

I like to look back upon my high-school days.  我喜欢回忆我高中时的岁月。

Perhaps some day it will be pleasant to look back upon these days.  或许将来有一天回忆起这些日子很令人愉快。

look as if /as though看起来好像

look around环视四周

look after照顾;照看    look out当心

look behind回头看    look through浏览

look down向下看    look up 向上看;查寻

look into调查;研究

look at,stare at,glance at

look at指把眼睛转向目标,译成“看,看着”;stare at 表示由于吃惊、害怕或深思而张大眼睛看,译成“盯着,注视,凝视”,glance at指“匆匆一看,一瞥”。对比:

She stared at the footprint,full of fear.


I’d like to look at your photo.


The middle-aged woman glanced at her watch and hurried off.


注意搭配:stare straight at 直直地盯着;stare into space凝视着空中;stare sb.in the face 盯着某人的脸看;stare sb.up and down.上下打量某人;glance over(through)a letter匆匆阅读一封信;glance round a room匆匆环视房间;at a glance 一看就……;give/take a  glance at 对……匆匆一看。



She was ________ ________the distance,thinking.


She ______shyly______him form behind her fan.

Key:①staring,into  ②glanced,at

look forward to sth.(doing sth.)渴望、企盼……

①They are looking forward to getting news of him.


②We should look forward,and don’t give up.


lose one’s sight(way; life; work;reason)分别表示:失明;迷路;牺牲;失业;失去理智等。如:

His son lost his life in the fighting.他儿子在战斗中牺牲了。


be in love with sb.

该短语意为“爱上某人”,其中的be可用fall替换,即fall in love with sb.也意为“爱上某人”。如:

Henry was/fell in love with Mary.

make love to sb .向某人示爱

make a promise

该动词短语意为“允诺”,其中的promise为名词,与它搭配的词组还有keep one’s promise(守信)等。如:

He’s always making promises and then breaking them.

Promise 也可是动词(vt.& vi.)意为“允诺”,“答应”。


promise to do sth(不定式作宾语)

promise sb. to do sth.(后接双宾语)

promise (sb)that – clause


如:①He promises me to buy a bike for my birthday gift.

②He promises me that he will buy a bike for my birthday gift.

make……do sth.使……做某事。做补语的不定式不带to,但在被动语态中则带to,即:be made to do sth.

The landlord made him work 12 hours a day.地主让他一天干12个小时的活。

被动式:He was made to work 12 hours a day(by the landlord).

与make意义相近的词还有let/have/get,但get的使用结构为:get…to do sth.

How can we get the trees to grow quicker?我们怎么能让树长快点呢?

make fun of取笑;嘲笑。

①It’s wrong to make fun of the blind.取笑盲人是不对的。

②It’s bad manners to make fun of a person who is in trouble.拿困境中的人开玩笑是不礼貌的。

make sure 弄肯定,设法做到,确保,安排妥,务必,后接宾语从句。如:

He made sure that he had enough food for the journey.他设法为旅行备足了食物。Make sure(that)you pick the child up at five.

Please make sure the house is locked.务必确保房门已锁上。

make sure 后还可接of或about ,指“弄清,搞明”如:

Have you made sure of the time of the train?你搞清楚火车的时间了吗?

We’ve made sure of our seats for the movie.

比较:be sure of sth. /be sure that……确信……

be sure to do sth .一定……,必然……

be sure of doing sth.对做某事有把握  如:

I’m sure of his success. = I’m sure that he’ll succeed.我确信他会成功。

He is sure to succeed .他一定会成功的。(说话人的判断)

He is sure of succeeding in the exam.他对考试成功是有把握的。

注意:It’s certain that he’ll win.此时不能用It’s sure that ……

make…to one’s own measure“依照某人的尺寸做……”如:

This coat is made to you own measure,I’m sure it will fit you nicely.这件大衣是你订做的,我想肯定很合身。


She is dancing to the music.她在随音乐节拍跳舞。

make up 编(造);构成;化妆make up 组成,构成。还有“化妆、打扮;编造(故事等),弥补” 之意The government is made up of ten members.

She made up a story to avoid being examined.

It’s a lie. He made up the story.这是谎言,都是他编造出来的。

Ten doctors made up a medical team.十名医生组成了一支医疗队。

Although she doesn’t make up, she looks beautiful.尽管不化妆,她依然美丽。

make use of

该短语动词意为“利用”,其中use 前可被good,the best, much,little no修饰。如:

You must make good use of any opportunities you have of practi-

sing English.

以 use为核心,组成的词组有:

in use 在使用中;out of use(目前)不使用

come into use 开始被使用;go out of use 不再使用。

manage    vt.经营;设法;对付

She managed the house very well.她把家管理得很好。

We managed to finish the work ahead of time.


I shan’t be able to manage without help.


[辨析] manage to do sth. /try to do sth.

manage to do sth.强调已达到目的或出现了结果,含“成功”之意。try to do sth.意为“试图或尽力做某事”,多表示一种企图或决心,而不表示一定成功。如:

we’ve managed to make up for the lost time.


He tried to pass the examination,but failed.


manage to do/try to do

manage to do sth. 意为“设法完成或做到某事”,含有成功之意。

He managed to organize a live concert. = He succeeded in organizing a live concert.


try to do sth.意为“试图做,尽力做某事”,是否成功,并不肯定。

He tried to work it out, but he failed.他努力想把它算出来,但没成功。


She married very early/well.她结婚很早/她嫁得很好。

Jane iis going to marry John.简就要嫁给约翰了。

—Is she married?她结婚了吗?

—Yes, she has been married for five years.是的,她已经结婚五年了。

She was married to a doctor.她和一个医生结了婚。

He married his son to a rich lady.他为独生子娶了个有钱的女子。

masses of…

该词组意为“大量的”,与lots of 相同,后接可数名词或不可数名词。如:They saved masses of money by improving technology.

a mass of…意为“一大堆……”,“一大片……”。

“情态动词may/might +完成时”的结构,有以下用法:

①may/might + have + 过去分词表示推测过去某动作“可能”发生了。如:

I can’t find my sunglasses, I may/might have left them at the

restaurant yesterday.


He may have heard of it from Jack.

He might have heard of it from Jack.

在下列情况下,may和might 用法有区别:



He says that she may/might have misunderstood him.

He said that she might have misunderstood him.

②might + have + 过去分词,表示对本来可能发生而实际并未发生的动作的感叹或遗憾含有“责备”、“抱怨”之意,而may + 完成时无此含义。如:

You might have told us earlier.

This medicine might have cured your cough

mean to do sth.


I’m very sorry if I hurt your feelings in fact.I didn’t mean to.

mend ; repair


Ask him to repair my watch/TV set.请他给我修一下手表/电视机。

The garage charged forty dollars to repair the car. 修车行修理这辆车收了四十美元。


How can I repair the damage I have caused?我怎样才能弥补我造成的损失?

I’d like to repair our differences .我想我们应该重归于好。


His clothes need mending.他的衣服该补了。

She mended the broken jar with cement. 她用水泥把破碎的缸补好了。

mend 还可意为“改正、纠正、治愈、使恢复健康”等。如:

The prisoner is mending his way.囚犯在改过自新。

It is never too late to mend.亡羊补牢,犹未为晚。


 1)用作名词:by mistake由于差错;make mistakes 出错;make no mistake没出错;correct one’s mistake改正错误;recognize one’s mistake承认错误;make mistake about sb./sth.误会(解)某人/事

2)用作动词:mistake one’s meaning误解某人的意思;mistake sb./sth.for错当成,误以为是……;be mistaken 弄错,错误的。


for a moment 一会儿;in a moment一会儿之后;a few moments alter过一会儿;a moment ago刚才;at any moment随时,立刻;at the moment此刻,现在;at that very moment 就在那时。

注意:the moment此结构中,the moment 用作连词,引导一时间状语从句,表示“一……就”。相同意思和用法的表达形式还有:the minute, the instant 和the second。如:

Telephone me the moment you get the results.

The moment the teacher entered the classroom,the students stood up.老师一进教室,学生们就站起来了。



The chairman will be here______ ______ ______,so you’d better not be off.


Just______ ______,he will come here______ a moment.

Key:①at,any,moment ②a, moment,in


twelve more steps意为“再有12个台阶”

We must climb twelve more steps to the top.

基数词 + more + n.s.= another + 基数词 + n.s.如:

There are 3 more chairs /another 3 chairs for dinner.

more and more… 越来越……

Our school is becoming more and more beautiful.我们的校园变得越来越美丽了。

more or less 或多或少;大体上;大约。

①—How far is your family away from here?你家离这里多远?

—Ten kilometres ,more or less.大约10公里。

②The work is more or less finished. 这项工作大体上完成了。

no longer 不再。通常置于行为动词之前,动词be之后,偶尔也置于全句的末尾。

①He no longer lives here.他不住这里了。

②Don’t worry about her. After all she is no longer a child .别为她担心。毕竟她不再是个小孩子了。

③I shall wait no longer.我不等了。

more than


如:Flag is more than a piece of cloth. It stands for a state.

More than 与one 连用,构成词组more than one 后接单数的名词和动词。如:

More than one person is going to lose his job.

must + have + 过去分词


—They quarrelled quite often and whenever they quarrelled they threw glasscup at each other.

—They must have broken a lot of glasses.


necessary主要用于两种句型:①It’s necessary for sb. to do

sth.某人有必要做某事②It’s necessary that…有必要……。注意:that从句中谓语用should + 动词原型,should 可省略。另外:不能使用sb. is necessary to do 结构,因为通常是“某事或做某事有必要”,而非人有必要。误:He is necessary to return home this afternoon. 正:It’s necessary for him to return home this afternoon.





①It’s necessary for him to improve his method of study:/It’s necessary that the should improve his method of study。

②If necessary,we’ll employ more men for the harvest.

no longer 常可相当于not…any longer. not 用来否定谓语, any longer 置于句末。上面的句子可分别改作:

①He don’t live here any longer.

②Don’t worry about her. After all she isn’t a child any longer.

③I shall not wait any longer.

注意:no more(相当于not…any more)也是“不再”的意思。no longer是把现在的情况和过去对比,时态以现在时为多,有时也用过去时或将来时;no more 指今后如何,通常用将来时态。

①I can no longer stand it.我再也受不了。

②I will go there no more.我再也不到那地方去了。


He is no more/no longer ill.他的病好了。

另外:涉及数量或程度时要用no more; 谈到时间表示once but not now(有一度、曾经那样,但现在不了时),要用no longer.

①There is no more bread.没有面包了。

②I no longer support the Conservative Party.我不再支持保守党了。(曾经支持过)

no more than:only仅仅;只有。具有感情色彩,强调“少”。与no less than 相对。

Not more than:less than;at most不到;至多。说明客观事实。与not less than相对。

①He has no more than 20 yuan.他只有20元钱。(强调钱“少”)

He has not more than 20 yuan.他有不到20元钱。(说明客观事实)

②No less than 50 people attended the meeting.参加会议的人不少于50多个。(强调“多”)

Not less than 50 people attended the meeting.参加会议的有50多人。(说明客观事实)


①you are no taller than I.你并不比我高。(我们两人都矮)

you are not taller than I.你不如我高。

②This question is no more diffcult than that one.这个问题并水比那个(容易的)问题难。

This question is not more diffcult than that one.这个问题不如那个问题难。

no more than;not more than;no more...than;not more...than

no more than 意为“仅仅、只不过”,相当于only。它与数字连用时,意为“仅仅至多”,强调“少”,带有说话者的感情色彩。如:

I am no more than a teacher.我只是个教师而已。

There were no more than two hospitals in this city before liberation.解放前,这座城市里只有两家医院(表示很少)

not more than 后面接数词时,表示“不超过、最多”的意思。用来说明情况,并含有“少”之意,也不带有说话者的主观色彩。如:

There are not more than ten minutes left.最多只剩下10分钟了。(表示客观事实)

“no more+形容词(副词)原级+than”意为“两者同样不”,前面和后面同时否定,带有感情色彩。如:

This tool is no more useful than that one.


“not more+形容词(副词)原级+than”意为“A不比B更……”。这是比较级的正规用法,表示比较的事实,两者都肯定。如:

This tool is not more useful than one.这样工具不及那件工具有用。(两者都有用)

noise ; voice; sound



I didn’t recognize John’s voice on the telephone.在电话里我没听出约翰的声音。

We could hear the children’s voices in the garden.我们能听见花园里孩子们的声音。


A joyful sound came from the distance. 远处传来欢快的声音。

The door was open, and the sound came from the kitchen.门开着,声音是从厨房传来的。


Loud noise can make people ill.大的噪音能使人生病。

Don’t make such a loud noise.别弄出这么大的声响。

Not all the parts of the car will be made in the factory.并非所有的汽车零件都在这个工厂里制造。

not 与总括词(即表示全部意义的词)连用,表示部分否定。not 有两个位置,可放在总括词前,也可用来否定谓语。不管总括词在句中作主语,还是作宾语、状语,都表示部分否定。


①Not all of them go in for sports.他们并不都喜欢运动。

相当于:All of them don’t go in for sports.

或:Some of them go in for sports,but others don’t.

②I don’t like both of the novels.这两部小说我并不都喜欢。

相当于:I like only of the novels.

③You can’t get this kind of vegetables everywhere.这种疏菜你并不是在哪里都能买到。

相当于:You can only get this kind of vegetables somewhere.

如果表示全部否定则应用:neither(两者)/none(多者)/no one/nobody/nothing/nowhere.

①None of them go /goes in for sports.他们都不喜欢运动。

②I like neither of the novels.这两部小说我都不喜欢。

③You can get this kind of vegetables nowhere.在哪里你也买不到这种疏菜。

not…but …    不是……而是……

Shakespeare was not a musician but a writer.莎士比亚不是音乐家而是作家。

Not the students but the teacher is hoping to visit the Great Wall.不是学生而是老师希望去参观长城。

He can’t read or write in English,but can speak English fluently.他不能读英语和写英语,但能流利地说英语。

They neet not money but time.他们所需要的不是钱,而是时间。

not just…but…:not only…but(also)…(also可省略)不仅/不但……而……。


①Not just you but he likes the country music very much.不但你,而且他也很喜欢乡村音乐。

②He can not just drive but repair a car.他不仅会开而且会修车。

③I like not just pop music but country music.我不仅喜欢流行音乐,而且喜欢乡村音乐。

④This book is not just interesting but also useful.这本书不但有趣而且有用。

⑤Lu Xun is famous not just in China but in the whole world.鲁迅不只在中国有名,而且在全世界都很著名。

not only…but also

①连续两个并列主语时,谓语和but also后的一致(即就近原则)

②Not only…but also…构成一倒装句式(强调状语或谓语时用;强调主语时不用倒装)。

①Not only you but also he likes playing football.


②Not only can he sing, but also he can dance well.






The mother didn’t leave the room until the child fell asleep.

I didn’t know the truth of it until the next day.


Not until the child fell asleep did the mother leave the room.

Not until the next day did I know the truth of it.


It was not until the child fell asleep the mother left the room.

It was not until the next day that I knew the truth of it.


①在not…until句型中,主句中的动词均为短暂性动词,如leave,start等。而在until的肯定句型中,主句的谓语动词一定要用延续性动词,因为until作为连词和介词意为up to the time when; up to“直到……时”。如:


We walked until the edge of the forest.(误)

Our classroom can hold until fifty students.(误)

                  from time to time

now and again means  now and then       时而


once in a while

at times

now that; due to; because of; owing to; since; as

now that作“既然”讲时,相当于since。now that中的that 可省去。如:Now(that)you are well again, you can travel, 你既然恢复了健康,就能够旅行了。

due to作 “起因于、归功于”时,常作表语或跟在名词后,如:

His failure is due to the fact that he lacks experience.他的失败源于他缺少经验。

Mistakes due to carelessness may have serious results.粗枝大叶造成的错误可能带来严重后果。

The team’s success was largely due to her efforts.该队的成功在很大程度上是由于她的努力。

because of“由于、因为”,在句中作状语或表语。如:

Lincoln is admired because of his good leadership.林肯由于其出色的领导而受到人们的赞赏。

His anger is because of your bad deeds.他是因你的失礼行为而生气。

owing to“由于、因为”,常在现代英语中与because of, due to换用。如:

Owing to unfavourable weather, I was unable to carry on with it.由于天气不好,我不能把它进行下去。


Nowhere is there a place for him to settle down.

类似的副词还有hardly scarcely, no sooner,seldom, never, little等。

Of + n.(抽象句词)相当于该名词相应的形容词,在句中可用作表语或补语。

能用于该句型的名词有:help/ use/ value/ importance等。其对应的形容词分别为:helpful/ useful/ valuable/ important.

①This book is of great use/ very useful.这本书很有用。

②His advice is of great value/ very valuable.他的建议很有价值。

③English is of great importance/ very important to us.英语对我们来说很重要。


offer sth.提供,提出;offer sb.sth./offer sth.to(for)sb.

为某人提供、提出;offer to do sth.主动提出做某事;offer sb.sth.for(money)卖给某人要多少钱;offer sb.(money)for sth出钱买东西

短语:offer advice/suggestions/congratulations/the price提出劝告/建议/表示祝贺/出价;make an offer of help 主动提供帮助;accept one’s offer 接受某人的建议



He ______his seat______ the old man./He _____the old man his seat.


My deskmate_____ ______ _____ me with my English.


Someone will _____ you 10,000 yuan______ your house.

Key:①offered,to /offered②offered,to ,help③offer,for

on holiday 在度假,此时holiday 前不加冠词。类似说法如:on a visit/a trip/a journey 要带冠词。take a holiday 休假

用介词on 表示处于一种状态,若用for 则表示目的。如:

He is on holiday .他在度假。

He is on a visit to America.他正在美国访问。

He wnet to the countryside for his holidays.他去乡村度假。

He went to America for a visit .他去美国进行一次访问。

比较:holiday, vacation, leave

holiday 与vacation一般可通用,但vacation侧重于长时间的假期,如: summer vacation, holiday 可长可短。leave 指政府工作人员或士兵的假期,也可用于指因事(病)而请的假。如: ask for leave 请假,a sick leave of three days 三天的病假

on one condition


He allowed me to do it on one condition.

on condition that这是一短语连词(=only if),引导条件状语从句。如:I’ll give you the day off on condition that you work on

Saturday morning.

on one’s arrival…

该词组意为“一到达……就……”(= on arriving…)。如:

On her arrival she helped me to prepare supper.

on one’s way to…正在到……,动身往……,在往……的路上

He was on his way to school when suddenly a policeman stopped him.


They telephoned to say that they were on the way, but they might be late.


I called on a friend of mine on my way back.


You mustn’t forget to call in at Brown’s on the way home.


拓展:by the way顺便说;in the way挡道;in a way 某种意义上;lose one’s way迷路;by way of 途经,经由;work one’s way 通过苦干……;no way决不;make one’s way 前进;all the way to…一路至……


lay the person on one’s back让这个人仰卧着;

lie on one’s back/stomach/side仰卧/趴着/侧着身躺着;

sleep on one’s side 侧身睡;

stand on one foot 一条脚站着;

stand on one’s head倒立



She ______ _______ ______ ______in the bed,crying all the while


It’s difficult for you to _____ ______ ______ ______ for several hours.

Key:①lay, on, her, stomach

②stand,on, your,head

on the air/in the air/by air/in the open air

on the air表示(用无线电、电视)播送节目。如:

What’s on the air this evening?今晚的广播内容是什么?

These programmes come on the air everyday. 这些节目每天广播。

其反义词为go off the air“停止广播”。如

This radio station goes off the air at midnight.这家广播电台于午夜停止广播。

in the air表示“在空中、在流传中、(问题,计划等)悬而未决(未确定的)、充满了(某种)气氛”。如:

There was dampness in the air.空气潮湿。

Bofore the matter was publicly announced, it had long been in the air.这件事在公诸于世之前早就传得满城风雨了。

The plan is quite in the air.这个计划还很渺茫。

The Spring  Festival was in the air for weeks before.几周前就充满了春节的气氛。

by air 表示“乘飞机、由航空”。如

He went to Shanghai by air.他乘飞机去上海.

in the open air 表示“在户外、在露天里”。如:

People love life in the open air.人们喜欢露天生活。

on the point of…

该短语常在句中作表语,意为“正要(去做某事)”,意思相当于be about to do sth.。如:

We were on the point of calling him up when he came.


①if/when it comes to the point如果/当时机到来(时)如:

When it comes to the point,he refused to help.

②from sb.’s point of view从某人的角度来看 如:

Try to look at school from the child’s point of view.

once; 1)意为“曾经”时,侧重“有一次”的意思,是副词在句中做状语,如:Once he owned a large house . 他曾经拥有一所大房子。



Have you ever been there ?你去过那儿吗?

The largest tree ,ever found there ,is one about 500 years old .那儿发现的最大的树有大约500年树龄了。


Once you go there ,buy a book for me .

Once you began, you couldn’t stop.  一旦开始,你就不能停。

Once you object to a man, everything he does is wrong.  一旦你反对一个人,那么他做的一切都是错的。

对比:once强调条件意味;as soon as强调时间的紧接

As soon as you come to Beijing, please let me know.  你一来北京就请告诉我。

once more:once again再一次;又一次。

①Read after me once more.再跟我读一遍。

②I’d like to see him once more.我想再见他一面。

one after another一个一个地,表示数量多并连续出现

School was over and students went out of the school gate one after another.


对比:one by one表示按顺序逐个进行或出现

Don’t hurry! You should enter the office one by one.


拓展:by and by一点一点地,逐渐地    little by little一点一点地

step by step 一步一步地,循序渐进地

one…the other, some…others

one…the other相当于one…one,表示两者中的“一个。另一个”;some…others表示许多中的“一些,另外一些”;some…the others表示“一些,其余所有的”。对比:

He has two companise. One is in China and the other is in the States.


In winter, some birds will fly away, and others wills stay here.冬天,一些鸟飞走了,另外一些留了下来。

Some stamps are new, and the others are all ones.



①Some people like to stay at home on Sunday, but _______like to go to the cinema.(NMET’85)

A.another        B.other      C.others       D.other one

②Of the three foreign guests, one is from London,_________two are from New York.(80年高考)

key:①C    ②B



:open a door/window/a small shop/one’s hand/one’s eyes/one’s mouth/fire开门/开窗/开一家小商店/张开手/睁开眼/张开嘴/开火;be opened to traffic通车;open up开采(发)

Now,he opens a small factory of his own.现在他自己办了个厂。

Open the door, please!请开门!

2)用作形容词,表状态,“开着的”:keep open开着门;be open开门、开业;cut…open切开;leave the door open 开着门;in the open air 在野外;an open secret公开的秘密;keep one’s eyes open睁眼

Don’t keep the door open.



3) be open to对……开放

Many school libraries are open to children on Sundays.


①John was so sleepy that he could hardly keep his eyes________.(MET’92)

A.open                      B.to be opened

C.to open                   D.opening

②Some new oilfields ________since 1976.

A.were opened up            B.has been opened up

C.have been opened up       D.had been opened up

③The computer center, _________ last year,is very popular among the students in this school.

A.open                      B.opening

C.having opened             D.opened

Key:①A ②C ③D

open up


open up = open the door开门

open up the parcel打开包裹


A beautiful view opened up before us.



open up a new situation / a bright future / more waste land



She never opened up to me on the subject.


or else = other wise = if not否则

Hurry up or else you’ll be late.


Study hard or else you won’t pass the exam.


Put on more clothes or else you’ll catch a cold.多穿些衣服,否则你会感冒的。

order food   叫食物

order n.&vt./vi.订购……

place an order for sth.订购……

order sth.from…向……订购……

order sb.sth. ?order sth.for sb.为某人订购……

I have ordered you some new clothes.


 ①表示“欠钱,欠债”,用于owe sth.to sb.或owe sb. sth.结构。如:

We still owe over 1,000 yuan to Lao Wang.



I owe thanks to Annie or this priceless gift of speech.


If I have improved in English, I owe it to my teacher.



She still________ the tailor_________ the clothes she had last week.


He ________ it__________you that he is still alive.

Key:①owes, for       ②owes, to


I owe a great to my parents.


He owes his success to good luck.


I owe thanks to you for your help.


拓展:owing to由于

The old professor couldn’t attend the meeting owing to illness.



It is a good idea to start a part-time job.  做一项兼职的工作是个好主意。

pass 短语归纳

pass sth.down把某物一代一代传下去;pass sth.on将某物传、交给某人;pass away逝世; pass by路过,忽视;pass sb. sth./pass sth.to sb.把某物递给某人;pass the exam/test/law通过考试/测验/法律


half past six六点半;in the past few years在过去的几年里;Two weeks passed.两周的时间过去了。He walked past the gate.他从大门口走过。


①去年他母亲去世了。His mother _________ __________ last year.

②这戒指是我家传来来的。This ring_________ __________ _________ __________in my family.

③那本书你看完了给我。__________the book_________ ________me when you’ve finished it.


When the young man heard the news. he________ _________with the shock.

Key:①passed, away    ②has, been, passed, down③Pass, on, to        ④passed, out


Please pass me the bread and butter.请递给我面包奶油。

Pass the word to him that Napolean will come himself.把拿破仑要亲自来的消息告诉他。

拓展:(1)vi.走过,通过Because of the large crowd in the street the truck was unable to pass.



Nobody can go into the hall without a pass.没有通行证,任何人不准进入大厅。

pay for 付……的货款,为……付代价

pay off 全部还清,偿请(借款)

①Did you pay 300 yuan to him for that bicycle?②I have just paid off my loan from the bank.

③You’ll have to pay for your mistakes.

perform, performance

perform 是动词“履行,表演”,而performance是名词“表演,演出”。如:perform a task/an operation/one’s duties/a play/a part做工作/做手术/尽责任/上演一出戏/演一个角色;perform to sb.对某人表演;give a performance演出;

对比:act/play a part扮演角色;put on a play上演一出戏


①他们总是很耐心地做实验They always________their experiments_________great patience.

②今晚演出什么戏?What play_______ _______ _______tonight?

③这位歌唱家以前从未在北京演唱过。The singer has never________in Beijing_______.


perform exercises to music.

短语意为“伴随音乐做体操”,从中可知“do sth. to music”判决书为“伴随音乐做某事”。如:

She likes dancing to music.她喜欢随着音乐跳舞。


ask for permission请求许可;

ask sb.for permission to do sth.请求某人允许做某事;

ask permission to do sth.请求得到允许做某事;

give sb.permission to do sth.允许某人做;

with one’s permission经某人允许;

without one’s permission 未经允许;

如:You have to ask the teacher for permission to do that.你应该得到老师的同意再去做那件事。

You have to ask permission to go there.你应该请求许可到那里去。


No permission has _______ for anybody to enter the building. (MET’88)

A.been given               B.given  C.to give                  D.be giving



a driving permit


You won’t get into the conference hall without a permit.


(1)就我个人来说(= in my personal opinion),用于表示个人的意见,通常于句首。

Personally, I don’t see much difference between the two.



The manager went personally to the hospital to see the worker who was seriously ill.


拓展:person/ c. /人personal adj.个人的

personality / c. u. / 个性,品格;人物

persuade  vt.说服

①persuade sb.  劝说某人

②persuade sb. to do   说服某人做某事

③persuade sb. into doing  说服某人做某事

④persuade sb. out of  说服某人放弃某事

Do you think you can persuade me?


She has persuaded her husband to give up smoking and drinking.她已说服自己的丈夫戒烟戒酒。

The young man was persuaded out of the wrong idea.那位年轻人被说服放弃了那种错误的想法。

pick out认出;显眼;挑选

Can you pick out your brother in the crowd?  你能在人群中认出你弟弟吗?

The houses in the painting picked out in white.  画上的房子以白色而显得醒目。

It’s so beautiful!How did you pick it out?  这么漂亮!你是怎么挑出来的?

pick up

(1)捡起;捡起。The naughty boy picked up a stone and threw it at the dog.那调皮的孩子捡起块石头向狗扔去。


①I’ll pick you up at the school gate.我用车到校门口接你。

②On her way home,she went to the nursery to pick up her son.回家的路上,她顺便到托儿所接她儿子。


It’s easy for my radio to pick up VOA.我的收音机接收美国之音很容易。

play  vt.  n. 弹,奏;打,玩

play the piano 弹钢琴        play the music演奏音乐

play basketball 打篮球        play games 玩游戏

play the game  守信用        play cards 打牌

play with 拿……来玩        

play an important part it 起重要作用  

at play 在玩耍;在赌博       at the play 看戏

pleasure  n.荣幸;愿意                                                  

It’s my pleasure to help you.愿意为你效劳。

It’s a pleasure for me to be invited to the party.应邀参加晚会我深感荣幸。

Plenty of 许多;大量。既可修饰可数名词,又可修饰不可数名词。

①There is plenty of rain here in china.在中国这个地方雨量充足。

②Plenty of trees have been planted along the road.路旁种了很多树。



many a

a great/good many              +可数名词

(1)  scores of

agreat/good/large number of

numbers of


a great/good deal of

(2)  a large/great amount of    +不可数名词

large/great amounts of

a lot of  

  lots of

(3)  plenty of                   +可数或不可数名词

 a large/great quantity of

large/great quantities of

point out 指出(to+n.)

The teacher pointed out my mistakes to me.



He quietly pointed his gun at the deer.


Practice makes perfect . 熟能生巧。

practical, real , true

practical 指“实践的”,“实际的”,“讲求实际的”,如:practical activities 实践活动   practical work 实际工作

She is a practical woman.她是位讲求实际的妇女。


real silk 真丝his real name 他的真名

true “真的”,指某种事实,故事,消息,信息,朋友等是真的,如:a true story 一个真实的故事


praise可用作名词或动词,均表示“赞扬,表扬”。如:sing high praise for高度赞扬;praise sb. for因……而赞扬其人;receive praise from sb.得到某人的称赞;win high praise受到高度赞扬;give praise to sb.表扬某人。



The headmaster_________ _________ ________ ________his brave deed.


He often helps others, so he __________ __________ _________his classmates.

Key: ①sang, high, praise, for      ②receives praise, from



Which do you prefer, rice or bread? I would prefer rice.



Jake preferred to have some Chinese food.



I prefer doing some writing in my spare time.



I should prefer you not to stay there too long.



We prefer that we (should)have the discussion after the lecture.




I prefer popular songs to folk songs.


She prefers singing to dancing.


②prefer-rather than…宁愿……而不愿(prefer后接带to 的不定式,rather than后省略to)

I prefer to write my letter rather than type it.



prepare a plan/cards/a meal/one’s lessons 准备一个计划/卡片/一顿饭/备课;prepare sb.sth./prepare sth.for sb.为某人准备某物;prepare to do sth.准备做某事;prepare sb.for使某人对……进行准备;make preparations for 为做准备:


①prepare one’s lessons(指教师)备课;prepare for one’s lossons (指学生)准备功课

②prepare for “为……做准备”,侧重指动作;be(get)prepared for “对某事从物质上,心理上做好了准备”是系结构,表示状态。对比:We are preparing for the final exam我们正在为期末考试做准备。/We are well prepared for the final exam.这次期末考试我们已完全做好了准备。



Father _______ _____ a good lunch./Father ______ a good lunch______ us.


Tomorrow is Children’s Day. The children are ______ _____ _____climbing.


We must_______ all the people______ the possible flood.


The Foreign Minister ______ not______for such questions.

Key:①prepared,us/prepared,for②preparing, to ,go

③prepare,for  ④was,prepared

prepare sb.for…


Mother is preparing me for my journey.

prepare 作为动词,既是及物动词,又是不及物动词且常与for连用。如:

Mother asked my sister to prepare lunch.


be present at 出席

How many people were present at the meeting?多少人出席了会议?


What present do you want for Christmas this year?



Now that the sports meet is over, our principal will present the prize.



I’m not going to buy a car at the present high prices.


(4)presently(adv.) = soon

She will be here presently.



at the present time = at present目前,现在

for the present暂时

pretend to be a lawyer

该结构中pretend 意为“装扮”,“装假”,后跟不定式或宾语从句 。其中不定式(有时态变化)是试题中的重点考查形式。如:

When mother came in, be pretended to be writing .

price n. 价格。常用结构:

(1)at a high/low price以高价/低价

He is very happy because he bought a new car at a low price.因为低价买了一部新车,所有他很高兴。


—Your new car only cost you 20,000 dollars. It’s really cheap.你的新车只花了2万美元,真便宜。

—Yes, the price is very low indeed.是啊价格确实很低。

(3)提问price 时应用what(多少)               。

What’s the price of that dress?那件衣服多少钱?相当于:How much is that dress?/How much 需用what提问“多少”的还有population/area/size/length/width/height/weight等名词。


throw(cast, put)sb.into(to)prison, take sb.to prison 把某人关入监狱.

区别:in prison与in the prison前者表示“坐牢、服法、服刑”;后者表示“在一所监狱”,有可能是在看望囚犯,也可能是监管人员。

Tom’s brother was put(thrown、cast)into prison because of murderer,and he will be in prison for thirty years.




Space research has progressed greatly.


(2) n. make great / little / no / much progress

He has made rapid progress in English this term.


Tom is not making much progress at school.


promise sb. to do sth.

allow/permit sb. to do sth.



My father promised me to give up smoking. 我爸爸答应我戒烟。(是“爸爸”戒烟,而不是“我”戒烟。即:动词不定式是主语发出的动作)

My father doesn’t permit/allow me to smoke.我爸爸不允许我抽烟。



promise to do sth.(后跟不定式)

allow/permit doing sth.(后跟动名词)

例:I promised to help him with his English.

Drinking wine is not allowed /permitted in our school.

pronounce  t.  i. 发……音;发音。名词形式为pronunciation.

①How do you puonounce the word?这个单词你怎么发音?

②This letter in the word doesn’t pronounce. 这个单词中的这个字母不发音。

Provide sb.with sth.供给某人……

provide it 供给……,提供……


    n.eg.The hotel will provie tents.

    n.+for sb. ?sb.+with sth.

    eg.They provide food and books for the children.

    ?They provide the children with food and books.

provide for赡养,抚养

He had to provide for a big family

supply vt.提供……供给……



       sth.to sb. ?sb.with sth.

They didn’t supply those children with books for studying. ?

They didn’t supply books to those children for studying.

provide  vt. 提供;供给

①provide  n. for        ②provide  n. with

The government provided food and houses for those who were homeless.


The school provides the students with textbooks. /The school provides textbooks for the students.


17.come to 达到,共计

The total cost of repairs came to about $100.


The things I bought came to 100 yuan.


The cost of the trip totaled/came to/added up to 1000 dollars.


put on /pull on/wear/have on /dress/in

(1)put on 和pull on 穿上;戴上。相当于及物动词,以衣物作宾语,着重于穿、戴的动作。put on 为普通用语;pull on多用于穿袜子、戴手套或比较随便地穿上。

①It’s cold outside.You’d better put on your hat.外面很冷,你最好戴上帽子。

②She put /pulled on her coat and went out of the room hurriedly.她穿上大衣,匆忙地走了。

(2)wear 和have on 穿着;戴着。相当于及物动词,有衣物作宾语,着重于穿、戴的状态。have on不用于进行时态。

①He always wears/has on black shoes.她一直穿着黑鞋。

②She is wearing/has on a red coat她穿着红大衣。

(3)dress 穿;戴。可用作及物动词,以人作宾语,即dress sb.(给某人穿衣);也可用作不及物动词。既可强调动作,又可表示状态,表示状态时常用be dressed in 结构。此外dress还可用作名词。

①Mary is dressing her daughter.玛丽正给她女儿穿衣服。

②She usually dresses well.她总是穿得很好。

③He is dressed in a black jacket.他穿着黑上衣。

(4)in 穿着;戴着。是介词,以衣物或表示颜色的名词作宾语,表示状态。构成的介词短词可作表语或定语。

①My brother is in a blue jacket.我弟弟穿着蓝上衣。

②The boy in a blue jacket is my brother.穿蓝上衣的孩子是我弟弟。

③My brother is in blue.我弟弟穿着蓝衣服。

put out


It book the firefighters more than three hours to put out the big fire.


The book will be put out soon.


The police have put out a general call to the public.


The company put out 13 new machines every week.


The government will put out a new statement next week.


常用词组:put down 记下,写下,镇压  put up 举起,张贴,修建

put on 上演,穿上,戴上  put away 储存,收拾起来

put aside 存储,留下    put off推迟,延期

put up with忍受

对比:come out(vi.)bring out(vt.)publish(vt.)出版

put sb. to the trouble(of doing sth.)给某人添麻烦,使某人为做某事而为难,trouble是不可数名词。如:

They didn’t want to put me to the trouble of meeting them at the station.他们不想麻烦我去车站接他们。



①Let me ask you a question.让我问你个问题。

②He has decided tha question.他解决了这个问题。


①He was questioned by the teacher.他受到老师的质问。

②I question the truth of the story.我怀疑这个故事的真实性。

question vt.询问,盘问,提问

You have no right to question me.


He was questioned by the police.


The teacher question us on verbs.


常用短语:ask sb. a question问某人问题

question(v.)sb. on就……提问某人


out of question(certainly)毫无疑问

without question毫无疑问

out of the question(quite impossible)不可能



Work hard,and you’ll be successful in time./If you work hard,you will be successful in time.




Get ready or you won’t pass the test./ If you don’t get ready,you won’t pass the test.




quite, rather表示“相当”意义与名词连用时,a/an可放在之前,亦可之后;但the 必须置于它们的前面。如:quite a big house/a quite big house相当大的一套房子。如:a quite easy problem/quite an easy problem相当容易的一个问题;a rather good player /rather a good player相当不错的一名运动员;the rather/quite tall tree 那棵相当高的树。



It’s _____ _____ cold day today.


He is ______ ______ _______artist.

Key: ①rather,a ②quite,a ,good

raise, rise


raise one’s hand/head/eyes/a stone/the flag/one’s pay/ the

price/one’s voice


②rise是不及物动词,不能接宾语,无被动语态,表示“上升,升起,起身,起立,起床,增长”等意义。如:river rise河水涨;price rise 物价上涨;rise from one’s seat从座位上站起来;rise early早起。

短语:raise a shout of joy高兴地喊起;

raise chickens/horses/children/a question养鸡/养马/养育孩子/提出问题;rise up起义,奋起反抗;get a rise /raise增加工资。



He stood there watching the flag_______ ________.


The price_________ _________to 10 dollars./The price_______

to 10 dollars.


Soon steam can be seen __________ from the wet clothes.


He asked the boss fo_________ ________.

Key:①being, raised       ②was raised /rose

③rising              ④a, rise(raise)



a bit/ a little→slightly→rather→much→completely→quite

2)rather 修饰形容词加名词时,若有冠词a 或an , 则rather 在冠词前、后皆可。如:It was rather a cold day . = It was a rather cold day.


rather表示不接受性,为否定意义;fairly 表示接受性,为肯定意义。如:

It’s rather cold today .(不愉快)

It’s fairly warm today .(心中舒服)

4) rather +比较级;rather/ much/ far+too+adj./adv, 而fairly,quite ,very 则不能。如:I did rathre better in the exam.       That’s rather too difficult.

5) rather than  而不是  如:

He , rather than you, is to be punished . 是他而不是你要受惩罚。

I decided to write rather than (to)telephone.我决定写信而不是打电话。


① would do sth . rather than do sth .= would rather do sth. than do sth .宁愿做某事而不愿做某事。

② prefer to do sth . rather than do sth .(意义同上)

reach sth./reach for sth.

 (1)reach sth.表示“够得着某物”,reach是及物动词。如:reach the top of the shelf够得着架子顶部;reach the apple on the tree够得着树上的苹果。

(2)reach for sth.表示“伸手(脚)去够某物”,其中的reach是不及物动词。亦可替换成reach out for sth.或reach out one’s hand(foot)for sth.,意义相同。

(3)reach还可用作不及物动词表示“延伸”。如:The woods reach as far as the river.树林子延伸到河边。

(4)短语:reach an agreement达成协议;

beyond/out of one’s reach够不着,力所不及;

out of the reach of sb.某人够不着;

within one’s reach够得着,力所能及。



He ______ ______ the stick but could not_______it.


You’d better have the food _______the boy’s ________.

Key:①reached, for, reach

②within, reach


be ready to do sth.(=be willing to do sth.)乐意做某事

Tom is always ready to help others.


If I’ve made any mistake, I’m ready to apologize.


realize  vt.意识到;实现

realize one’s mistake  认识到自己的错误

realize one’s meanings 领会某人的意思

I didn’t realize that my English was limited until I was abroad.直到出国以后我才意识到自己的英语水平很有限。

She managed to realize her dream at last.



for this/that reason因为这个/那个原因:for no good reason没有正当的理由;for a simple reason因为一个很简单的原因;for some political reasons因为政治原因;for the reason of health由于健康原因;give a reason提供理由。



①His reason for being late was________he missed the bus.

②The reason__________he didn’t come to school was that he was ill.

③The doctor gave  reason________ couldn’t explain the failure of the operation.

Key :①that   ②why     ③which/that

recognize vt.辨认出;承认

Do you recognize his hand writing ?你能认出他的笔迹吗?

They recognized him to be a great leader.他们承认他是一位伟大领袖。

He didn’t recognize that he had made a big mistake.他不承认自己犯下了大错。


reduce the number of减少……的数量;

reduce the cost/one’s weight/the price/speed降低成本/减肥/降价/减速




The number of smokers has been reduced _________30%.


Now the cost of a bike has been reduced _______50 dollars.

Key:①by  ②to

refer to, refer…to

1)refer 可用作及物动词,用于refer… to,表示“将……提交给”。如:

refer this problem to the school把这个问题提交学校;

refer the matter to the United Nations.将这件事情提交联合国

2)refer表示“谈到,涉及;查阅,参考,指”时是不及物动词,需用refer to结构。如:

The book which you referred to is not in the library.


His report refers to the situation in the Middle East.


短语:refer to the map/one’s notes/the dictionary


注意:look up word in the dictionary 查字典

对比:refer to 指语言、内容与某人(物)有关;而point to表示用手指向某人(物)。如:

I didn’t know whom she was referring to.


She pointed to the map and explained to the students.




A friend of mine often ______ _______ Dr.Bethune when I was in



The two countries. _______the matter _______the United Nations.

Key:①referred,to ②referred,to

rely on / upon相信,信赖

He relied on his parents’ advice.


I rely on you to tell me all about it.


Such people are not to be relied on.


对比:rely on / upon指由过去的经验,使人相信对方必定能完成所交代的事情;depend on指依赖别人的支持或援助;trust(in)指深信绝对不会发生被出卖或令人失望的事情。

I rely on his ability.我相信她的能力。

She depends on her friends to make a decision.


He is a man to be trusted.


It depends on whether you want to do it or not.这得看你是否想做。



The fact remains that she is a liar.


They went off but she remained three days in that country.


(2)link v.(continue to be)+pred.(表语)(n./adj./pres. p. /past. p/ prep.p等)

The weather remains cold and wet.


Pollution in the city remains a problem.


You can’t let your room remain like this.


①He remained silent at the meeting.在会上他一言不发。

②His books remain very new because he hardly read them。他的书仍然很新,因为他几乎没读。


e.g. Let’s stay here until he appears.


拓展:remaining adj.剩下的the remaining money = the money left剩余的钱

remainings n.(复数)剩余(物),残骸,遗迹

the remains of ancient Rome 古罗马的遗迹

the remainder(of)=the rest(of)剩下的东西/其余的人


remain vi.逗留、保持;指人(也可指物)逗留在一定的场所,也指物保持原来的形状或状态。

stay 逗留;仅指人(不可用物)逗留在一定场所。

How many weeks shall you remain/stay here?你将在此地停留多久?

I shall remain/stay to see the end of the game.我将留下来看比赛的结果。

Let it remain as it is .听其自然.

It remained unharmed.它仍然无损。



after the fire, nothing remained to the house.大火过后,屋子所剩无几。

If you take two from four, two remains.四减二剩二。



He reminded me to answer the letter as early as possible.

He reminded me that I would answer the letter as early as possible.他提醒我尽早回信。

This photo reminds me of my childhood.这张照片使我想起了我的童年。

Do you remember the advice I gave you?你记得我给你的忠告吗?



This _______ _______ ______what we did together during our holidays.


I still______ _______ _______to Beijing when I was a child.

Key:①reminds,me,of    ②remember,being,taken

remove sth.to…把……移向……

remove it去除;脱掉?

remove sb.(sth.)from+n.


You should remove your coat in the warm room.



①可用单数和复数形式,但不和数词或不定冠词连用。This  car

needs a lot of repairs before you can use it. 这部汽车需要大修之后才能使用。/The repair of the ship cost much money.这艘轮船的修理花了很多钱。

②短语:make repairs/do repairs  修理(必须用复数);under repair 在修理;be out of  repair失修



①repair多指修理的物体较庞大,构造较复杂或损坏严重的东西。如:repair a bridge/house/car/TV set/watch修桥/房子/汽车/电视/手表。 习惯上可用于指补鞋,但不用于指补衣服。

②mend 多用于指修理的物体较小,结构较简单的日常用具,或缝补衣服、袜子等。如:mend a shoe/sock/basket/box/pen补鞋/袜子/篮球/修补箱子/修钢笔。

③fix 是美国英语,可与repair替换。如:fix a machine/chair/typewriter修机器/椅子/打字机。



The swimming pool won’t be open today because they are_____.


This house has been____ ______ _____ for many years。


You can’t go through because the bridge is _____ _____.

Key:①making, repairs②out,of, repair③under repair或:being, repaired


reply和answer均可解作“回答、答道”,但用法有别。reply用做不及物动词时,可用reply to sb./sth.;作及物动词后跟直接引语或宾语从句,但不能直接跟人或物作宾语。如:

Please reply to my question.请回答我的问题。

He replied that he knew the news.他回答说他知道这消息。

answer 用作及物动词,可直接跟名词或代词作宾语,而reply应加to才可接名词或代词。如:

He answered the examination paper quite well.他考卷答得很好。

fail to reply to a question/letter未能回答问题/回信


request 用作名词,也可用作动词,均表示“请求”。如:

make a request for…请求、要求得到……;request sth.from sb.向某人要求某物;request sb.to do sth.请求某人做某事;request that…(从句中应使用should型虚拟语气,should可省略);



The workers out of work______ ______ ______ ______help.


Students_______ ________not to touch anything in the lab.


My parents requested that______ ______ _______a second foreign language.

My parents_______me______ ______a second foreign language.

Key:①made,a,request,for ②are,requested




①You should respect the teachers.你们应尊敬老师。

②Everyone must respect the law.人人都应守法


①We have been told to show respect for our elder.父母教导我们必须尊敬长辈。

②My father sends his respects to your parents.我父亲向你父母问好。

right now = at the moment ,at present 眼下,现在

比较:right away = right off ,immediately, at once , in no time 马上,立刻

ring up  n.给……打电话

Could you please ring me up as soon as you come back?


Please ring up the train station and find out whether the train from Guangzhou has arrived or not.



①call up sb.      ②telephone sb.

③telephone to sb. ④make a telephone call to sb.


ring back回电话    ring off(= hang off)挂断电话;停止讲话

(反义词)hold on不挂断(电话)

ring the doorbell 按门铃


play the role of…

该短语意为“扮演……角色”(=play a part of…)。如:

In this film he will play the role of a policeman.



有“房间”之意,可数;space有“太空”之意,不可数。常用短语:live a room 5住在5号房间;three rooms三个房间;take up much room占很多空间;standing room 立足之地;in space 在太空


①There is much rooms for improvement in our work.

②There isn’t enough spaces in this classroom for 30 desks.

③The universe exists in the space, as we all know.

Key: ①改rooms为room



run out, run out of

二者均表示“用完、耗尽”,但run out不及物,同give out, run short;而run out of及物,相当于use up, run short of。对比:Money is running out.钱快用光了。We’re running out of money.我们的钱快用光了。

All the money has given out./All the money has been used up.所有的钱已花光。

The oil is running short.油快用完了。

He is running short of oil.他快把油用完了。


Key:Two weeks passed, and their food ran out.

Two weeks passed, and they ran out of the food.

Two weeks passed, and their food gave out.

Two weeks passed, and their food had been used up.

Two weeks passed, and their food ran short.

Two weeks passed, and they ran short of the food.


1)tell the difference between A and B.说出A和B的区别;辨别A和B

2)tell A from B.区别、辨别A和B

3)What’s the difference between A and B?A和B什么不同?

4)There be some differences between A and B.A和B 之间有不同之处。

5)A be different from B.A和B不同

6)make sb./sth.different from使某人/物不同于……

7)do sth. differently from…做起某事与……不同

8)make no difference无关紧要



I can hardly_____the difference________ these two words.


________ ________ ________between a sheep and a goat?


It _______ ________ ________ to me which side may win.


You are rich indeed, but that doesn’t _________ __________ __________ ________ __________.


The fact _______quite________ _________ what he said.


Can you _________ her________her sister?

Key:①tell, between


③makes,no, difference

④make, you,different,from,others



save; rescue


He operated on her at once, and Edison’s mother was saved.

They fight against the enemy to save their country.


Helicopters were sent to rescue them, but it was impossible for them to get close enough.

say “Hi/Hello”to somebody 向某人问候。

类似的还有:say“Yes/OK/No”to sb./sth.同意/不同意……

say“Good-bye”to sb.向某人告别。

Say“Sorry”to sb .向某人道歉。

After saying “Good-bye”to us, he left hurriedly.和我们道别之后,他匆匆离开了。


at sea 在航海中,在海上

at the sea 在海边


go to sea 当水手,当海员

go to the sea 到海边去

keep house  料理家务

keep the house呆在家中不出门

in bed 睡着,躺在床上

in the bed在床上

at play在玩,正在游戏

at  the play 在看戏

search;search for; look for


They searched their homes without any reason.他们毫无理由地搜查了他们的家。

They searched him but found nothing.他们搜了他的身,但没有找到什么。

(2)search for 则指“搜寻、搜索某人或物”。如:

They searched for him everywhere.他们到处搜寻他。

The police searched the wood for the lost child.警察在树林里寻找走失的孩子。

试比较:They searched his clothes.他们搜查了他的衣服。(看是否藏有东西)

They searched for his clothes.他们在搜寻他的衣服。(要找到衣服)

另外,search也可用做名词,in search of “寻找、寻求”是个常见短语。如:

The boys went in search of something to eat.孩子们去找东西吃。

(3)look for意为“寻找”,同search for意义大体相同。但search for 意味较强,用很大注意力搜寻。而look for则较为通俗,常用于日常用语。如:

I looked for my missing pen everywhere.我到处找我丢失的那支笔。

see…off 为…送行。

① Is anybody seeing you off ?有人送你吗?

②Tomorrdow I must go to the airport to see my brother off .明天我得到机场为我哥哥送行。

see sb. doing sth . 看到某人正在做某事(看到动作的一部分。)

see sb. do sth . 看到某人做过某事(看到了动作的全过程。)

①I saw him crossing the treet.我看到他正在过马路。

②I saw him cross the street.我看到他过了马路。

当用到不定式作宾语补足语时,不定式不带to .但在被动句中不定式须带to 。

He was seen to fall suddenly from the tree.人们看到他突然从树上掉了下来。

send out 发出;放出

Some unknown flowers in the garden send out nice smell.


The sun sends out light and heat.太阳发光发热。


Send away 撵走;开除;解雇   send for派人去叫(请)  send up发射


make sense讲得通;很有意义

This sentence doesn’t make any sense.

sentence 短语归纳

sentence用作名词或动词,有“宣判,判决”之意。如:pass sentence on sb.判某人的刑;announce sentence on sb.宣布对某人的判决;serve one’s sentence服刑;be sentenced to hard labour被判服苦役;be sentenced to six months in prisom被判处六个月监禁;be under the sentence of death/be sentenced to death被判处死刑;have sb. sentenced to death判某人死刑;sentence sb. to death判某人死刑;receive a sentence of two years 被判两年徒刑。



One murderer was______ ______ three years in prison and the other was sentenced_______ _________ .


The thief_______a sentence _______ 5 years in prison.

Key:①sentenced, to, to, death        ②received, of


(1)adj. 独自的、独立的、分别为不同的、各自的、分离的、分开的。

My little son wants a separate room. 我小儿子想要个单词。

I want to listen to your separate opinions.我想听你们每个人自己的看法。

(2) t. ; vi. 使分开;分离;隔开。常与from 搭配。

Separate the bad apples from the good ones.把坏苹果和好的分开。

England is separated from France by the Channel.英吉利海峡把英国和法国分隔开。

We talked until midnight and then separated.我们一直谈到半夜,然后才分手。

Nobody can separate Taiwan from China.任何人也不能把台湾从中国分裂出去。

set off (for)出发,动身(去某地)

set off 引爆

set out to do sth.着手……


    set about+     doing开始(着手)做……

①We’ll set off fox Xi’an at six tomorrow.

②Polonium is used to set off a nuclear bomb.

③He set out to break the record for the crosschannel swim.④I don’t know how to set about this job.

shoot sb./sth;shoot at sb./sth.

在shoot sb./sth.中,shoot为及物动词,除了shoot the arrow(射箭)外,其宾语多为射击的对象,即人或动物等。Shoot意为“打中、打死、枪决”。而在shoot at sb./sth.中,shoot为不及物动词,at表示动作的方向或目标,打中与否不得而知。试比较:

He shoot the bear.他打中了那只熊。

He shoot at the bear.他朝那只熊射击。

show off

该短语动词意为“炫耀”,而show sb./sth.off意为“显示……的优点”。如:

He is a man who is always showing off.

由show 构成的短语动词有:

show up出现/出席,显眼



如:Only three of the people we invited to the party didn’t show up.


 1)用作名词:traffic signs交通标志;road signs 路标;

signs for the rest rooms厕所标志:signs of heart trouble 心脏病的迹象,signs of rain/earthquake下雨/地震的预兆。

2)用作动词,表示“签名,作手势”。如:sign one’s name签名;sign the agreement 签署协议;sign to sb.朝某人做手势;sign to sb.to do sth.做手势让某人干某事。



The president_______ ______ ______to the paper.


The policeman ________ ________ ________ _______.


single, not a single

single是形容词,有“单一的,单个的,单身的,唯一的”意义;not a single表示“一个也没有”,起强调作用,位于句首时引起倒装。如:remain single尚未成婚;the single person唯一的人;a single bed/ticket/man/room单人床/单程票/独身男子/单人房间

He didn’t make a single mistake in the exam./Not a single mistake did he make in the exam.他在考试中没出一处错误。




Key: ①Not a single person has been in the shop this morning.

②He’s the single person that can help us.

so far迄今为止;到现在为止。通常用现在完成时连用,so far可置于句首、句中或句末。

①So far we have learned English for six years.到今年我们已经学了6年英语了。

②Your work has been good so far this year.今年迄今为止你的工作很出色。

③ We haven’t heard from Tom so far.至今我们还没收到汤姆的来信。

6.the + 比较级,the + 比较级 越……,就越……。

①The busier he is ,the happier he feels。越忙他越高兴。

②The harder you work, the greater progress you’ll make.你学习越努力,取得的进步就越大。

③The more hppily we live,the more we realize how much we owe to the Party。我们过得越幸福,就会更加认识到共产党的恩情。

④The more I hear, the more I laugh.越听我笑得越厉害。



若句子为否定句,则用neither, nor ,如:

I don’t know, nor do I care .我不知道,也不关心。

 若前句既有肯定又有否定,或并列谓语形式不一致,则采用so it is    with……,或It is the same with……的结构,如:

—— He is writer and has written a lot of works .

—— So it is with me. ( 或It is the same with me)

此时说明我也是作家,也写了很多作品。若用so am I 只能说明我是作家。若用so have I 只能说明我也写了很多作品。再如:

—— He is good at English, but doesn’t do well in maths.

—— It is the same with me .( 或So it is with me )

若用So am I 或 Nor do I 则只能分别说明其中一个方面。

so that 以便于;目的是为了。相当于in order that,引导目的状语从句。从句中常带有may/might;can/could;will/would/should等情态动词

①He got up early so that he might catch the first bus.他早起为的是赶上第一班车。

②I put on my glasses so that I could see more clearly.我戴上眼镜为的是看得清楚点。

③He spoke loud so that everyone could hear him.他大声说是为了让大家都能听到。

以上各句中的so that均可用in order that代替。

当so that从句的主语与主句主语一致时,常可简化为in order to或so as to 结构。


①He got up early in order to catch the first bus.

②I put on my glasses in order to see more clearly.


He spoke loud so that he could be heard by everyone.可转换为:He spoke loud in order to be heard by everyone.

注意:in order that/in order to 表示目的时,可置于句首;so that/so as to 表示目的时不能置于句首。




so+   adj.+a/an+n.(单数)        +that



such+   n.(复数)             +that


例句:①This film is so moving that I want to see it again.这电影太动人了,我还想再看一遍。

②He walked so fast that I couldn’t keep up with him.他走得太快,我跟不上。

③This is so interesting a book

     such an interesting book

④The villagers were such kind people that they all came to help us.村民们都是好心人,都前来给我们帮忙。

⑤It is such fine weather that we all want to go out for a walk.天气这么好,我们都想出去走走。

⑥There were so many books in the shop that he didn’t know which to buy.书店里书那么多,他都不知道买哪些。

so young a body

说明:在一个带有形容词的名词词组中,不定冠词a/an 通常放在adj.的前面。但是,如果adj.前有so, too, how,quite时,a/an应放 adj.的后面。其结构是:so/too/how/quite+adj.+a/an +n.。如:

①He is so good a student.

②It is too difficult a job for me.

spend vt.花费;用。其主语为“人”,宾语为“金钱”或“时间”;后面可搭配介词“on + 名词/代词”,或“in(可以省略) + 动名词”。

使用句式为:sb. + money/time + on sth./(in)doing sth.

①They spent 2000 yuan on the TV set./They spent 2000 yuan(in)buying the TV set.他们花了2000元这台买电视机。

②The writer spent 2 years(in) writing the novel./on the novel.这位作家花了两年时间写这部小说。

另外:“花钱”还常用以下两个句式:sb.+ pay money + for sth./sth.+cost sb.+money

①They paid 2000 yuan for the TV set.

②The TV set cost them 2000 yuan.

“花时间”还常用It takes sb. some time to do sth. 句式。

It took the writer 2 years to write the novel.

start with 以……开始

Today’s class starts with a question.

stay link-v. 保持;维持。后面通常接形容词作表语。

①The weather stays fine for three days. 天气好了3天了。

②The shop stayed open till six o’clock. 这家商店营业到6点。



Einstein stuck to his theories and went on with his work.爱因斯坦坚持他的理论并继续工作下去。


Professor Zhang walks with a stick.张教授拄着手杖走路。

2.prove vt.;vi.证明;结果是;证明是。

①Again history proved them wrong.历史再次证明他们错了。

②I can prove that he never tells a lie.我能证明他从不说谎。

③The method proved(to be)highly effective.这个方法证明是非常有效的。


 1) 用作形容词,意为“静止的,不动的,平静的”。

如:keep(stay) still保持不动;lie(stand)still躺着(站着)不

动;a still lake/evening 平静的湖/寂静的夜晚。


be still busy仍然很忙;win still greater success取得更大成功。

3)辨析still,quiet,silent;still侧重“一动不动”,quiet指“安静”,无动作,无声音,无骚乱,其反义词是noisy(吵闹的、喧哗的);silent指不出声,不说话。对比:sit still坐着不动;Be quiet,and the class will begin.请安静,马上就要开始上课了。

Hearing the answer,be was silent for a minute or more.听了回答之后,他沉默了一两分钟。



He is tall,but his brother is _________ _________.


I have been thinking for hours, but I ______can’t decide.

Key:①still, talker ②still

stop…from doing sth.阻止……做某事。stop也可换为prevent 或keep.

①Nothing can stop/prevent/keep us from doing that. 没有什么能阻止我们那样做

②This is the best way to stop/prevent/keep such a thing from

happening again.防止这样的事再次发生这是最好的办法。


I tried to stop/prevent him(from)smoking, but I failed.我试图劝他戒烟,但没成功。

但当用到动词keep时,from不能省略。因为省略后得到的是另一句型keep…doing sth.意为“使……不断地做某事”。

I’m sorry I’ve kept you waiting for so long .很抱歉让你久等了。

street, highway, road, path



①This is the point where two busy streets meet.

②They turnede off the main highway onto a winding earth road.③There is a narrow road from our village to the next one.

④Walk along the path or you may lose your way.




The teacher truck the table whenever he was angry.


Strike while the iron is hot.趁热打铁。


The clock has just struck twelve.十二点的钟声刚刚响过。


What struck us most was the great number of bicycles on the street.


Visitors to Hangzhou are usually struck by the beautiful scenery.到杭州的游客常被那里的美景迷住。

I am struck by Annie’s honesty. 我被安妮的诚实所打动。


His cousin was said to be struck by a snake.



Workers often strike in that country.


短语:strike at 朝…… 打击;strike against撞……;strike sb. on the head打某人的头。


go on strike举行罢工;be on strike 在罢工



He seized a stick and ________ ________me .


The child’s head ________ _______the wall.


The salesmen _______ ________ ________ for higher pay.


The railway workers _________ _________ ________.

Key:①struck,at        ②struck, against

③went, on, strike    ④are, on, strike


struggle可用作名词或动词,表示“斗争,奋斗,挣扎”。如:take up the struggle开始斗争;after a struggle经过战斗;through struggle通过斗争;struggle with sb.与某人搏斗;struggle against difficulties/death/illness/nature/strong winds与困难/死亡/疾病/自然界作斗争/与大风搏斗;struggle for a living/freedom为生活而挣扎/为自由而斗争;struggle to one’s feet挣扎着站起来。



We had to _________ ________ strong winds all the way.


The old woman _________ ________ ________ ________and struggled along the road to her home.

Key:①struggle, against

②struggled, to, her, feet

such as 例如;诸如。用于列举同类的人或事物。

①Writers such as Lu Xun and Ba Jin are well-known to all.象鲁迅、巴金这样的作家是众所周知的。

②This summer we’re going to visit some places of interest,such as the Great wall,the Summer palace and the Imperial Palace.今年夏天我们要去参观一些名胜古迹,如长城,颐和园、故宫等。

注意:and so on 等等。用于并列成分之后。

Here you can buy oil,salt,sugar,vineger and so on.在这里可以买到油、盐、糖、醋等。


 ①用作及物动词,意为“遭受,蒙受,受到,忍受”。如:suffer loss/pain/punishment/defeat/wrong/hardship/discouragement/disappointment/unfair/treatment/hunger遭受损失/疼痛/遭到惩罚/遭到失败/受到冤枉/忍受艰难/失去勇气/灰心丧气/受到不公正对待/挨饿。

②用作不及物动词,意为“受痛苦、受损失,折磨,受惩罚”,与from搭配。如:suffer from headache/loss of memory/bad health患头疼/患有遗忘症/身体不好;suffer a lot from a strange illness因怪病吃了不少苦。




Key: ①The city suffered serious damage from the earthquake.

②They suffered a great deal in the war.

suggest vt.建议;提议。有三种常用句式(但不能说suggest sb.to do sth.)。

(1)suggest sth.

①Who suggested the plan?谁提出的这项计划?

②She suggested Shanghai for their meeting.他提议在上海会面。

(2)suggest doing sth.(不能接不定式)

①He suggested going for a swim in the river after lunch.他提议午饭后去河里游泳。

②I suggest talking with him as soon as possible.我建议尽快和他谈。

(3)suggest than……此时的宾语从句通常用虚拟语气,即谓语用“should+原形”,should可以省略。

①I suggested (that)Jane(should)start at once.我建议简马上出发。

②I suggested Jack not wear the sweater.我建议杰克不要穿背心。

③We suggested he be punished.我们提议惩罚他。


①The smile on her face suggested she was very happy.脸上的微笑说明她很高兴。

②His silence suggested that he didn’t agree with us.沉默不语表明他不同意我们的意见。


suggest 在此意为“建议”,后面的宾语从句的谓语用了虚拟语气,其结构是:should do或do,否定形式为:should not do或not do.如:

I suggested that LiMing (should)be sent to the south.


I suggested that he (should)not do it today.我建议他今天先不要做。


His smile suggested that he was quite satisfied with our work.他的微笑表示他对我们的工作很满意。


I suggest that you don’t ask him home for the vacation.我建议你假期不要邀他回家去。(句中用don’t ask,而没有用should not ask或not ask)

I suggest that Robert might go to Beijing and have a talk with Mr Wu.我建议罗伯特去北京同吴先生谈一谈。(句中用might go而没有用should go 或go)

supply vt.供应;提供给。常用结构:

supply sb. with sth./supply sth. to sb.两种结构常常可以转换。

①The factory supplies us with some parts of the car.

The factory supplies some parts of the car to us.这家工厂为我们提供一些汽车零部件。

②The peasants supply vegetables to the city.

The peasants supply the city with vegetables.农民们为城市提供疏菜。

suppose  vt.认为;猜测

①suppose  n. to be       ②suppose that从句

③suppose so/not

We all supposed him to be honest. 我们认为他老实。

I don’t suppose that I shall come back until eight o’clock.


—Will he come?他会回来吗?

—I suppose so.我想他会。

I suppose not./I don’t suppose so.我想他不会。


to one’s surprise表示“令人吃惊的是”,是介词短语。作结果状语或插入语,位于句首,其中one’s 指形容词性物主代词或名词所有格,surprise前也可用形容词修饰。例如:

To my great surprise, he passed the English examination.令我大为吃惊的是,他的英语考试极格了。

To Mr Lin’s surprise, Miss Li alone got three gold medals.使林先生吃惊的是,李小姐一人得三块金牌。

(2)in surprise表示“吃惊地、惊奇地”,是介词短语,作程度状语,常位于谓语之后。例如:

“How do you come to know it ?”Mr Zhao asked in surprise.赵先生惊奇地问:“你怎么知道的?”

He shouted to us in surprise.他吃惊地向我们呼喊。

(3)by surprise表示“出其不意、趁……不防、突然”,是介词短语,作方式状语。例如:

He took the dog by surprise. 他趁那条狗不防突然进行袭击。

His visit took me by surprise.他的突然来访使我感到意外

surprised  adj.感到惊奇

①be surprised to do    ②be surprised at

③be surprised that从句

They were surprised to hear the news.


He was surprised at their visit.


We are surprised that she can finish all these things in such a short time.


swallow vt.吞吃;不嚼就吃下去

She swallowed the medicine with the help of some water.


He just swallows his food; he is always in a hurry.


take 短语归纳

take along 带着,带在身边;take one’s place 坐某人的座位,代替某人的职位;take medicine 吃药;take steps采取步骤;take measures采取措施;take advice 接受建议;take a taxi坐出租车;take a look at 看;take a bath/walk/rest/trip洗澡/散步/休息/旅行;take away拿走; take down拿下,记录下;take back 带回,收回(话);take off脱下(衣、鞋、帽),(飞机)起飞;take out取出;take place 发生;take the place of代替,取代;take up 开始,拿起;take a deep breath深呼吸;take one’s temperature量体温;take a photo照像;take a photograph of给……拍照;take one’(a)seat 坐下,坐好;take aim at 瞄准;take charge of 负责(管理某事或照顾某人);take…for把……误当作;take hold of 抓住;take interest对……发生兴趣;take it easy别紧张,别过累;take notes作笔记;take notice of 注意;take office就职;take a new look on呈现新面貌;take on workers 雇佣工人;take part in参加(活动);take pride in 为……而骄傲;take the lead带头;take trouble费劲(力);take the side of 支持某人(方);take a day off某一天休假,不工作;take one’s time从容行事,慢慢来;take turns轮流。take a bath:洗个澡   take a taxi:打的take off:脱去;起飞 take care of:照料take exercise:运动take away:拿走take a look:看一看take turns:轮流take one’s time:慢慢做 take a photo:拍照take one’s temperature:量休温take a bus:乘公共汽车take medicine:服药               take an interest in: 对……感兴趣take a seat:就座  take the floor:起立发言take a prize:获奖take the chair:当主席take place:发生                   take hold of:握住take a rest:休息一下  take in:收容take fire:着火                   take a drive:乘马车take a nap:小睡一会儿(午觉)take a shower:洗个淋浴

take a trip:旅行take a walk:散个步



Why don’t you ________ _______ your mother__________to the



The map on the wall is to old. _________ _________ ________.


Sorry. I _______ _______ what I said just now.


I ________him _________ my younger brother.

Key:①take,along②Take, it ,down③take, back④took,for

take an interest in 对……感兴趣

have an interest in 对……感兴趣

lose interest in 对……失去兴趣

①He has a great interest in stamp-collecting.

②I lost my interest in history.

③His father took no interest in him.

take charge

该词组意为“掌管”,“负责”,常与of介词连用,后接宾语,与“be responsible for”同意。如:

Betty took charge of all the preparations for the exhibition sales.

take…for example

take…as an example  以……为例

You can take it for example that he always helps the old.


Take Peter as an example, he is brave and kind.以彼得为例,他既勇敢又善良。

take/have a look at 看一下。该动词短语比look at 更侧着于一次性动作,即“看一眼”。

Can I take/have a look at your new watch?我看一看你新买的手表好吗?

类似的短语还有:take /have a rest /an exam/a bath等。

take on; take sth. on意为“从事”,“担任”,“承担”。如:

 ①He is taking on a new job.

②You’ve taken on too much.


take sb. on接受挑战

如:He took Jack on at golf.

take on a new look呈现新面貌

如:Our country has taken on a new look every where.

take photograph of/take photograph for

take photograph of 表示拍照的内容。 take photograph for 表示拍照的目的。如:

He took some photographs of these beautiful flowers.


He took some photographs for the foreigners.


take…by surprise对……突然袭击,出乎……意料。

His parents took him quite by surprise when they suddenly appeared at the door.

take turns = take in turns轮流(做某事)

The two boys took turns at digging the hole.


The three men took turns to drive so one would not be too tired.


take up, take down

 ①take up arms/guns/knives/Japanese/too much room/the whole

day/the cry/the song拿起武器/拿起枪/拿起刀子/开始学日语/占太多的空间/占了整整一天的时间/喊起来/唱起来。

②take down the old picture /what he said取下旧画/记录下他说的话。



He _________ _________ _________at the age of twenty.


The meeting_________ _________the whole morning.

Key:①took, up ,writing      ②took, up

talk of; talk about; talk on

这组词均可以表示“谈”,但程度不同。talk of 只表示“涉及”;talk about 表示谈细节;talk on兼有议论。如:

Talking of Shanghai, have you been there in summer?谈到上海,你夏天在那儿待过吗?

What are you talking about?你们在谈论什么呢?

They are talking on the book.他们在谈论这本书。

talk things through把话说完;充分讨论

You’d better talk things through. I will listen with complete attention.


If I had enough time, I would have talked things through.



tear out撕下,扯下,拔起;tear up 撕碎,拔起(后一词义同tear out);tear down撕下,拆毁,tear at撕扯某物;tear sth.open把……撕开;tear sth.to(into)pieces把……撕成碎片。



The first pages of this book were ________ ________by someone.


Many trees were________ ________by the strong wind.


She _________ _________ the letter the moment she had read it.


The workmen__________ _________the old house and built a new

one in its place.

Key:①torn, out      ②torn, out(up)③tore, up           ④tore, down

.tear out撕下,撕掉

He tore some of the papers out of the book.他从书中撕下了几页。

对比:tear up撕碎,撕毁,连根拔起

She tore up the letter.


The trees were torn up by the hurricane.


另:tear down拆除(建筑物等)  tear sth. in two/half 把……撕成两半

tell A from B →tell difference between A and B.

①Can you tell the difference between the two words?你能辨别这两个单词间的不同吗?

②It’s hard to tell one twin from the other.双胞胎很难分辨。

the coming…:the next 即将/正在到来的。

①—Hi,why are you so busy?你好,怎么那么忙?

—Because I’m preparing for the coming examination我正为快要到来的考试做准备

②We have decided to hold a sports meet during the coming autumn.我们已经决定今年秋季开运动会。

the rest 其余的人或物。可替代可数名词复数或不可数名词。作主语时,谓语动词数的形式应由替代的名词形式决定。

①These three books are mine.The rest are his .这三本书是我的,其余的是他的。

②Just give me a glass of the beer ; the rest is yours.给我一杯啤酒就行,其余的归你。

the same (…)as…和/同……一样。same之前总是带定冠词

①Jenny looks the same as before.詹妮看起来和以前一样。

②He is the same age as his wife.他和他妻子同龄。

③I have the same opinion as you(have).我和你意见一致。

The same to you : I wish you the same .希望您也如此。


①— Have a good time.祝你愉快。  

—The same to you.祝你愉快。

②—Merry Christmas and Happy New year. 祝你圣诞快乐、新年幸福。

—The same to you .祝你也快乐、幸福。

但:—Happy birthday to you.祝你生日快乐。—Thank you.谢谢。

如果双方同一天生日,就用The same to you.

句型:the + 形容词或副词比较级,the + 形容词或副词比较级(越……,就越……)

①The more, the better.越多越好。

The more they talked, the more encouraged they felt.他们越说,就越感到鼓舞。

The more he thought about it, the less he liked.他对这个考虑越多,就越不喜欢。

The harder you study, the more progress you’ll make.  越努力学习,你的进步就越大。

There are safety measures to follow while training.


①while training 是从属连词与分词连用,在句子中做时间状语。结构“when/while + -ing 或过去分词短语”的使用条件是:

when/while 从句中的主语与主句中的主语相同。如:

You should have dropped in on me when staying here.

除了when/while 外,其他的从属连词如if,as if, though, as


If heated, ice can be turned into water.

②to follow 是不定式做定语,修饰名词measures,是主动表被动。在There be 句型中,用不定式做的定语时,即就是不定式与所修饰的名词之间是动宾关系,也常用不定式的主动语态形式。如:

There is a lot of work to do.

there be句型:①是一种倒装句式,be后的主语要和be在数上保持一致。如:

There is a pen, two books and some other things on the table.桌上有一支笔,两本书和一些其他的东西。

②there be句型有完成式there have(has)been;有将来式there is

going to(will)be。

③there be句型中可加情态动词。如:

I am sure there used to be a shop near here.我肯定在这附近以前有家商店。

④there be句型中有的be,还可以用其他词表示“有、存在”,there live(一般跟人,有……一个人),there stand(指物,树、高楼之类),there lie(物,如一片土地等)。如:

There stand many tall buildings in our school and there lies a large wheat field in front of it.


there is no need…

need 在此为不可数名词,意为“需要”、“必须”,使用时应该注意它使用的句式结构,即我们只能说“There is no need for +n./(for sb.)to do ...”

不能说“It is no need (for sb.)to do sth.”

There is sth.wrong with...,......出问题了,出毛病了。

相当于sth.is wrong with….

①—What’s wrong with you?你怎么了?

—There is something wrong with my back.我的背有点毛病。

②—Is there anything wrong with yous radio?你的收音机出毛病了吗?

—Yes.It doesn’t work.是的,不响了。

think to oneself


She was thinking to herself how cold the room was.

Think aloud意为“自言自语”(=talk to oneself)。如:

He stood there with his lips moving as if he talked to

himself/thought aloud.

think up 想出,想起(办法等)

The students try to think up an idea to play football without$being seen.

think over熟虑;think out 想出,想透(问题等)

think of考虑,认为,想起think about 考虑,想出

think aloud自言自语

Think well/highly/much of 篙度赞扬……;对……赞赏、印象好。

①All the teachers think well of Yang Pei.所有老师都对杨蓓印象很好。

②Our work was well thought of.我肎的工作受到了高度评价。

反义词组为:think poorly/little/nothing of

this/that kind of…

┉of this/that kind“葩种……”

析:this/that kind of 后常用“单数名词”;而…of this/that kind前常用“复数名词”。即:

this/that kind of+单数名词=复数名词+of this/that kind

例:This kind of car is made in China.(单数谓语动词)

= Cars of this kind are made in China.(复数谓语动词)

throughout; all over; all through


He worked throughout the night and the next day.他工作了整整一夜和第二天一天。

The disease spread throughout the country.这种病蔓延全国。

all over一般接表示地点的名词。如:

Just before he was killed, he sent a message to his comrades all over the country.在他被杀害之前,他把信送给了全国各地的同志们。

all through 一般接表示时间的名词。如;

The light was burning all through the night.灯彻夜亮着。

throw away抛弃

throw in插进(话语)

throw off脱

throw out 抛出,丢弃

throw over把……抛过去(抛回),抛弃(朋友)



most of the time 大部分时间;enough time 足够的时间;ahead of time 提前;spare time 抽出时间;spend time 度过时间;take some time 花一些时间;pass time 度过一段时间;waste time 浪费时间;devote time in时间用在某方面;save time 节省时间


three times 三次;how many times 几次;five times as large as…五倍的大小;this time 这一次;last time 上一次;next time 下一次;each/every time 每一次;for the first time 第一次;


in the old times 在古时候;in ancient/modern times 在古代/现代;in one’s time 在某人那个时代;be ahead of one’s time  在时代面前;at the time of 在……时代;New York Times纽约时报

注意:have a good time 过得愉快,have a hard time/have hard times 日子过得艰难



____ _____ I called on him, he was busy with his work.


This is ______ ______ _____ _____ I have been to Beijing.


______ _____ ______ women could not go to school.


In the 1960’s the people there_____ _____ _____.

Key: ①Each, time ②the, first, time,that ③In, her, time,④had, hard,times

to be honest

该固定词组意为“老实说”,是动词不定式结构,与“to tell the truth”同义,它常用来表达某人的期望。如:

To be honest, I didn’t go there.


一般情况下“too… to ”表示否定意义“太……而不……”。如:

His brother is too young to go to school.他弟弟太小还不能上学。

The sentence is too difficult for me to translate.这个句子太难我译不了。

但在以下情况,“too…to ”并不表示否定意义。

(1)当too之后跟的是表示主语的态度、情感、心情或倾向的词时(常见的这类词有glad, eager, anxious, happy, ready, nervous, pleased等)。如:

We were too eager to know the result of the exam.我们急于想了解考试结果。

She was too ready to speak.她太多嘴多舌。

He was too anxious to leave.她急于离开。

Sometimes we are too easy to overlook our own faults.有时我们很容易忽略自己的错误。


Such a man is too ready to blame others to blame himself.这种人最爱责人而不责己。

(3)如果在“too...to”结构中含有not或never等否定词时,则表示肯定。如:One is never too old to learn.活到老,学到老。

English isn’t too diffcult to learn.英语并非难得学不会。(或:英语并不难学。)

The girl is too careful not to make any mistakes.这女生很细心不会出错。

Mary is too clever not to believe him.玛丽很聪明不会相信他的。

(4)在too前有only, just, simply, all, but等词时,不定式也表示肯定。如:

The foreign visitors are only too glad to have an opportunity to visit the Great Wall .这些外宾非常希望有参观长城的机会。

The boy is only(just/but)too happy to help other students.这位男生特别喜欢帮助别人。

He knows but too well to hold his tongue.他深知少说为佳。


play a trick on sb.= play with sb.捉弄某人,耍弄计谋

He is always playing tricks on others.


Don’t play tricks on me. I want to know the truth.


troop n./v.

(1)n. 一群,大量,许我troops军队,部队

A troop of school children went into the museum.


The local people demand the withdrawal(撤退)of foreign troops.



The students trooped up on the sports ground.


We all trooped into/out of the hall.


turn out 结果是……、变成……

turn against 反戈一击、反对……,对……不满

turn back打退堂鼓,返回

turn down拒绝;把……(音量等)放低,开小

turn in上交某物,交回

turn into变为

turn off关上(收音机、龙头等);离开(公路等);对……失去兴趣,反感

turn on开(收音机等),使……感兴趣;吸引;向……进攻;责怪

turn out结果是、最后情况是……,关(电灯、煤气等),生产、造就

turn over移交,随便翻阅

turn to sb.寻救帮助;查阅资料;努力于、加劲干

turn up来赴(宴、开会),出现;把(音量)放大;使作呕。如:

①There was no body that I could turn to.


②Please turn off the TV set. It’s wasting power.


③Things turned out to be smoothly developing.


④Our suggestions were turned down at the meeting.



She went hot and cold by turns.


by turns轮流;一阵……,一阵……;out of turn不该谁……干,不合时宜。do sb.a good(bad)turn 帮了某人的忙(倒忙)

turn to 其中to为介词。

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